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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 1
"Observing the Armies on the Battlefield of Kurukshetra
& The Consequences of War"

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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 1 Quick Links:
BG 1.1, BG 1.2-13, BG 1.14-23, BG 1.24-35, BG 1.36-41, BG 1.42-46 (conclusion)


Bhagavad Gita 1.1


 King Dhritarashtra asks this question of his secretary, Sanjay: "Being desirous of fighting, what are my sons and the sons of Pāṇḍu doing at on the battlefield of dharma-- Kurukṣetra?"

The question Dhritrasthra is really asking is, "who will emerge victorious?"


Audio Recording


Bhagavad Gita 1.1

dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāca

dharma-kṣetre kuru-kṣetre
samavetā yuyutsavaḥ
māmakāḥ pāṇḍavāś caiva
kim akurvata sañjaya

Synonyms

dhṛtarāṣṭraḥ uvāca — King Dhṛtarāṣṭra said; dharma-kṣetre — in the place of pilgrimage; kuru-kṣetre — in the place named Kurukṣetra; samavetāḥ — assembled; yuyutsavaḥ — desiring to fight; māmakāḥ — my party (sons); pāṇḍavāḥ — the sons of Pāṇḍu; ca — and; eva — certainly; kim — what; akurvata — did they do; sañjaya — O Sañjaya

Translation
K
ing Dhṛtarāṣṭra said: O Sanjay, after my sons and the sons of Pandu assembled in the place of pilgrimage at
Kurukṣetra desiring to fight, what did they do?

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Bhagavad Gita 1.2-13


Duryodhana assesses the array of the top battlefield warriors and commanders of both sides. He speaks to his military guru Dronacharya and addresses his other battle commanders towards the end of his brief review. He asks that the venerable warrior grandfather of the Kurus--Bhishma pitamah, be protected. Bhishma cuts short Duryodhana's talk.


Audio Recording


Bhagavad Gita 1.2

sañjaya uvāca

dṛṣṭvā tu pāṇḍavānīkaṁ
vyūḍhaṁ duryodhanas tadā
ācāryam upasaṅgamya
rājā vacanam abravīt

Synonyms

sañjayaḥ uvāca — Sañjaya said; dṛṣṭvā — after seeing; tu — but; pāṇḍava-anīkam — the  Pāṇḍava army; vyūḍham — arranged in a battle formation; duryodhanaḥ —King Duryodhana; tadā — at that time; ācāryam — the teacher, Bhisma; upasaṅgamya — approaching; rājā — the king; vacanam — words; abravīt — spoke.

Translation
Sanjay said to King Dhritrashtra: O King, after  seeing the soldiers of the
Pāṇḍavas  arranged in a military formation, King Duryodhan approached his military teacher, Dronacharya, and spoke the following words.


Bhagavad Gita 1.3

paśyaitāṁ pāṇḍu-putrānām
ācārya mahatīṁ camūm
vyūḍhāṁ drupada-putreṇa
tava śiṣyeṇa dhīmatā

Synonyms

paśya — behold; etām — this; pāṇḍu-putrānām — of the sons of Pāṇḍu; ācārya — O teacher; mahatīm — great; camūm — military force; vyūḍhām — arranged; drupada-putreṇa — by the son of Drupada; tava — your; śiṣyeṇa — disciple; dhī-matā — very intelligent

Translation
(King Duryodhana said) Behold the sons of
Pāṇḍu my teacher! See this great army very expertly arranged by your very intelligent disciple, Dhṛṣṭadyumna, the son of Dhrupad!


Bhagavad Gita 1.4

atra śūrā maheṣv-āsā
bhīmārjuna-samā yudhi
yuyudhāno virāṭaś ca
drupadaś ca mahā-rathaḥ

Synonyms

atra — here; śūrāḥ — heroes; mahā-iṣu-āsāḥ — great mighty bowmen; bhīma-arjuna — to Bhīma and Arjuna; samāḥ — equal; yudhi — in the fight; yuyudhānaḥ — Yuyudhāna; virāṭaḥ — Virāṭa; ca — also; drupadaḥ — Drupada; ca — also; mahā-rathaḥ — great fighter.

Translation
Here in this army are great bowmen equal to Bhīma and Arjuna in fighting prowess. There are also great fighters like Yuyudhāna, Virāṭa and Drupada.


Bhagavad Gita 1.5

dhṛṣṭaketuś cekitānaḥ
kāśirājaś ca vīryavān
purujit kuntibhojaś ca
śaibyaś ca nara-puṅgavaḥ

Synonyms

dhṛṣṭaketuḥ — Dhṛṣṭaketu; cekitānaḥ — Cekitāna; kāśirājaḥ — Kāśirāja; ca — also; vīrya-vān — very powerful; purujit — Purujit; kuntibhojaḥ — Kuntibhoja; ca — and; śaibyaḥ — Śaibya; ca — and; nara-puṅgavaḥ — hero in human society.

Translation
There is Dhrshtaketu, Cekitana, Kasirajah and the very powerful Kurujeet. There are Kuntibhoj and Saibhya--all heroes in society and
great powerful warriors.


Bhagavad Gita 1.6

yudhāmanyuś ca vikrānta
uttamaujāś ca vīryavān
saubhadro draupadeyāś ca
sarva eva mahā-rathāḥ

Synonyms

yudhāmanyuḥ — Yudhāmanyu; ca — and; vikrāntaḥ — mighty; uttamaujāḥ — Uttamaujā; ca — and; vīrya-vān — very powerful; saubhadraḥ — the son of Subhadrā; draupadeyāḥ — the sons of Draupadī; ca — and; sarve — all; eva — certainly; mahā-rathāḥ — great chariot fighters.

Translation
There are also mighty Yudhamanyu, the very powerful Uttamaujah, son of Subhadra, and the sons of Draupadi. They are  all great chariot fighters.


Bhagavad Gita 1.7

asmākaṁ tu viśiṣṭā ye
tān nibodha dvijottama
nāyakā mama sainyasya
saṁjñārthaṁ tān bravīmi te

Synonyms

asmākam — our; tu — but; viśiṣṭāḥ — especially powerful; ye — who; tān — them; nibodha — just for your information; dvija-uttama — O best of  brāhmaṇas; nāyakāḥ — captains; mama — my; sainyasya — of the soldiers; saṁjñā-artham — for information; tān — them; bravīmi — I am speaking; te — to you.

Translation
Just for your information, O best of brāhmaṇas, let me tell you of the especially qualified and powerful military captains and commanders of my armies who are present.


Bhagavad Gita 1.8

bhavān bhīṣmaś ca karṇaś ca
kṛpaś ca samitiṁ-jayaḥ
aśvatthāmā vikarṇaś ca
saumadattis tathaiva ca

Synonyms

bhavān — your good self; bhīṣmaḥ — Grandfather Bhīṣma; ca — also; karṇaḥ — Karṇa; ca — and; kṛpaḥ — Kṛpa; ca — and; samitim-jayaḥ — always victorious in battle; aśvatthāmā — Aśvatthāmā; vikarṇaḥ — Vikarṇa; ca — as well as; saumadattiḥ — the son of Somadatta; tathā — as well as; eva — certainly; ca — also..

Translation
There are great personalities like you, Grandfather Bhīṣma. Then there are Karṇa and Kṛpa, who are always victorious in battle, and certainly there are also these ever victorious warriors Aśvatthāmā, Vikarṇa and the son of Somadatta, known as Bhūriśravā .


Bhagavad Gita 1.9

anye ca bahavaḥ śūrā
mad-arthe tyakta-jīvitāḥ
nānā-śastra-praharaṇāḥ
sarve yuddha-viśāradāḥ

Synonyms

anye — others; ca — also; bahavaḥ — in great numbers; śūrāḥ — heroes; mat-arthe — for my sake; tyakta-jīvitāḥ — prepared to risk life; nānā — many; śastra — weapons; praharaṇāḥ — equipped with; sarve — all of them; yuddha-viśāradāḥ — experienced in the science of warfare

Translation
Here are a great many other heroes who are prepared to lay down their lives for my sake. All of them are well equipped with different kinds of weapons, and all are experienced in the science of warfare.


Bhagavad Gita 1.10

aparyāptaṁ tad asmākaṁ
balaṁ bhīṣmābhirakṣitam
paryāptaṁ tv idam eteṣāṁ
balaṁ bhīmābhirakṣitam

Synonyms

aparyāptam — immeasurable; tat — that; asmākam — of ours; balam — strength; bhīṣma — by Grandfather Bhīṣma; abhirakṣitam — perfectly protected; paryāptam — limited; tu — but; idam — all this; eteṣām — of the Pāṇḍavas; balam — strength; bhīma — by Bhīma; abhirakṣitam — carefully protected

Translation
We have immeasurable military might perfectly protected by Grandfather Bhīṣma, whereas the limited strength of the Pāṇḍavtrumpetas, carefully protected by Bhīma.


Bhagavad Gita 1.11

ayaneṣu ca sarveṣu
yathā-bhāgam avasthitāḥ
bhīṣmam evābhirakṣantu
bhavantaḥ sarva eva hi

Synonyms

ayaneṣu — in the strategic points; ca — also; sarveṣu — everywhere; yathā-bhāgam — as differently arranged; avasthitāḥ — situated; bhīṣmam — unto Grandfather Bhīṣma; eva — certainly; abhirakṣantu — should give support; bhavantaḥ — you; sarve — all respectively; eva hi — certainly.

Translation
Commanders, as you stand at your respective strategic points on the battlefield and elsewhere in your military divisions you should all give your support and protection to
Grandfather Bhīṣma.


Bhagavad Gita 1.12

tasya sañjanayan harṣaṁ
kuru-vṛddhaḥ pitāmahaḥ
siṁha-nādaṁ vinadyoccaiḥ
śaṅkhaṁ dadhmau pratāpavān

Synonyms

tasya — his; sañjanayan — increasing; harṣam — cheerfulness; kuru-vṛddhaḥ — the grandsire of the Kuru dynasty (Bhīṣma); pitāmahaḥ — the grandfather; siṁha-nādam — roaring sound, like that of a lion; vinadya — vibrating; uccaiḥ — very loudly; śaṅkham — conchshell; dadhmau — blew; pratāpa-vān — the valiant.

Translation
Bhīṣma, the greatly powerful and valiant grandsire of the Kuru dynasty blew his conchshell and the sound reverberated like a great lion's roar, gladdening the heart of Duryodhana.


Bhagavad Gita 1.13

tataḥ śaṅkhāś ca bheryaś ca
paṇavānaka-gomukhāḥ
sahasaivābhyahanyanta
sa śabdas tumulo ’bhavat

Synonyms

tataḥ — thereafter; śaṅkhāḥ — conchshells; ca — also; bheryaḥ — large drums; ca — and; paṇava-ānaka — small drums and kettledrums; go-mukhāḥ — horns; sahasā — all of a sudden; eva — certainly; abhyahanyanta — were simultaneously sounded; saḥ — that; śabdaḥ — combined sound; tumulaḥ — deafening; abhavat — became.

Translation
After that, the conchshells, drums, bugles, trumpets and horns were all suddenly sounded
simultaneously with a deafening sound.


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Bhagavad Gita 1.14-23


After the sounding of conchshells, drums, bugles, and horns from Kaurava's army, on a great chariot drawn by white horses, both Lord Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, sounded their transcendental conchshells.


Audio Recording


Bhagavad Gita 1.14

tataḥ śvetair hayair yukte
mahati syandane sthitau
mādhavaḥ pāṇḍavaś caiva
divyau śaṅkhau pradadhmatuḥ

Synonyms

tataḥ — thereafter; śvetaiḥ — with white; hayaiḥ — horses; yukte — being yoked; mahati — in a great; syandane — chariot; sthitau — situated; mādhavaḥ — Kṛṣṇa (the husband of the goddess of fortune); pāṇḍavaḥ — Arjuna (the son of Pāṇḍu); ca — also; eva — certainly; divyau — transcendental; śaṅkhau — conchshells; pradadhmatuḥ — sounded.

Translation
After the sounding of conchshells, drums, bugles, and horns from Kaurava's army, being firmly situated on a wonderful transcendental chariot drawn by white horses, Lord Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, sounded their transcendental conchshells.


Bhagavad Gita 1.15

pāñcajanyaṁ hṛṣīkeśo
devadattaṁ dhanañ-jayaḥ
pauṇḍraṁ dadhmau mahā-śaṅkhaṁ
bhīma-karmā vṛkodaraḥ

Synonyms

pāñcajanyam — the conchshell named Pāñcajanya; hṛṣīka-īśaḥ — Hṛṣīkeśa (Kṛṣṇa, the Lord who directs the senses of the devotees); devadattam — the conchshell named Devadatta; dhanam-jayaḥ — Dhanañjaya (Arjuna, the winner of wealth); pauṇḍram — the conch named Pauṇḍra; dadhmau — blew; mahā-śaṅkham — the terrific conchshell; bhīma-karmā — one who performs herculean tasks; vṛka-udaraḥ — the voracious eater (Bhīma)

Translation
Lord Kṛṣṇa, the master of the senses and all living beings, blew His conchshell, called Pāñcajanya. Arjuna blew his conchshell, Devadatta, and Bhīma, the voracious eater and performer of herculean tasks, blew his terrific conchshell, called Pauṇḍra.

Bhagavad Gita 1.16-18

anantavijayaṁ rājā
kuntī-putro yudhiṣṭhiraḥ
nakulaḥ sahadevaś ca
sughoṣa-maṇipuṣpakau

kāśyaś ca parameṣv-āsaḥ
śikhaṇḍī ca mahā-rathaḥ
dhṛṣṭadyumno virāṭaś ca
sātyakiś cāparājitaḥ

drupado draupadeyāś ca
sarvaśaḥ pṛthivī-pate
saubhadraś ca mahā-bāhuḥ
śaṅkhān dadhmuḥ pṛthak pṛthak

Synonyms

ananta-vijayam — the conch named Ananta-vijaya; rājā — the king; kuntī-putraḥ — the son of Kuntī; yudhiṣṭhiraḥ — Yudhiṣṭhira; nakulaḥ — Nakula; sahadevaḥ — Sahadeva; ca — and; sughoṣa-maṇipuṣpakau — the conches named Sughoṣa and Maṇipuṣpaka; kāśyaḥ — the King of Kāśī (Vārāṇasī); ca — and; parama-iṣu-āsaḥ — the great archer; śikhaṇḍī — Śikhaṇḍī; ca — also; mahā-rathaḥ — one who can fight alone against thousands; dhṛṣṭadyumnaḥ — Dhṛṣṭadyumna (the son of King Drupada); virāṭaḥ — Virāṭa (the prince who gave shelter to the Pāṇḍavas while they were in disguise); ca — also; sātyakiḥ — Sātyaki (the same as Yuyudhāna, the charioteer of Lord Kṛṣṇa); ca — and; aparājitaḥ — who had never been vanquished; drupadaḥ — Drupada, the King of Pāñcāla; draupadeyāḥ — the sons of Draupadī; ca — also; sarvaśaḥ — all; pṛthivī-pate — O King; saubhadraḥ — Abhimanyu, the son of Subhadrā; ca — also; mahā-bāhuḥ — mighty-armed; śaṅkhān — conchshells; dadhmuḥ — blew; pṛthak pṛthak — each separately

Translation
King Yudhiṣṭhira, the son of Kuntī, sounded his conchshell, Ananta-vijaya. Nakula and Sahadeva sounded Sughoṣa and Maṇipuṣpaka, and then one by one the other great warriors on the side of the Pāṇḍavas blew their conchshells —the great archer the King of Kāśī, the great fighters Śikhaṇḍī, Dhṛṣṭadyumna, King Virāṭa, the unconquerable Sātyaki, King Drupada, the sons of Draupadī, and among others, O King, Abhimanyu the mighty-armed son of Subhadrā.

Bhagavad Gita 1.19

sa ghoṣo dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṁ
hṛdayāni vyadārayat
nabhaś ca pṛthivīṁ caiva
tumulo ’bhyanunādayan

Synonyms

saḥ — that; ghoṣaḥ — vibration; dhārtarāṣṭrāṇām — of the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra; hṛdayāni — hearts; vyadārayat — shattered; nabhaḥ — the sky; ca — also; pṛthivīm — the surface of the earth; ca — also; eva — certainly; tumulaḥ — uproarious; abhyanunādayan — resounding

Translation
The combined vibration of the conchshells shattered the hearts of the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra and reverberated in the sky and on the earth with an auproarious sound.

Bhagavad Gita 1.20

atha vyavasthitān dṛṣṭvā
dhārtarāṣṭrān kapi-dhvajaḥ
pravṛtte śastra-sampāte
dhanur udyamya pāṇḍavaḥ
hṛṣīkeśaṁ tadā vākyam
idam āha mahī-pate

Synonyms

atha — thereupon; vyavasthitān — situated; dṛṣṭvā — looking upon; dhārtarāṣṭrān — the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra; kapi-dhvajaḥ — he whose flag was marked with Hanumān; pravṛtte — while about to engage; śastra-sampāte — in releasing his arrows; dhanuḥ — bow; udyamya — taking up; pāṇḍavaḥ — the son of Pāṇḍu (Arjuna); hṛṣīkeśam — unto Lord Kṛṣṇa; tadā — at that time; vākyam — words; idam — these; āha — said; mahī-pate — O King.

Translation
At that time Arjuna, the son of Pāṇḍu, seated in the chariot bearing the flag marked with Hanumān, took up his bow and prepared to shoot his arrows. O King, after looking at the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra drawn in military formation, Arjuna then spoke these words to Lord  Hṛṣīkeśa (Kṛṣṇa).

Bhagavad Gita 1.21-22

arjuna uvāca

senayor ubhayor madhye
rathaṁ sthāpaya me ’cyuta
yāvad etān nirīkṣe ’haṁ
yoddhu-kāmān avasthitān

kair mayā saha yoddhavyam
asmin raṇa-samudyame

Synonyms

arjunaḥ uvāca — Arjuna said; senayoḥ — of the armies; ubhayoḥ — both; madhye — between; ratham — the chariot; sthāpaya — please keep; me — my; acyuta — O infallible one; yāvat — as long as; etān — all these; nirīkṣe — may look upon; aham — I; yoddhu-kāmān — desiring to fight; avasthitān — arrayed on the battlefield; kaiḥ — with whom; mayā — by me; saha — together; yoddhavyam — have to fight; asmin — in this; raṇa — strife; samudyame — in the attempt.

Translation
Arjuna said: O infallible one, please draw my chariot in the middle of these two armies so that I may see all those present here who desire to do battle,  and also see those with whom I and my army must attempt to fight.

Bhagavad Gita 1.23

yotsyamānān avekṣe ’haṁ
ya ete ’tra samāgatāḥ
dhārtarāṣṭrasya durbuddher
yuddhe priya-cikīrṣavaḥ

Synonyms

yotsyamānān — those who will be fighting; avekṣe — let me see; aham — I; ye — who; ete — those; atra — here; samāgatāḥ — assembled; dhārtarāṣṭrasya — for the son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra; durbuddheḥ — evil-minded; yuddhe — in the fight; priya — well; cikīrṣavaḥ — wishing.

Translation
Let me see those who will be fighting, as well as those who have assembled here to fight wishing to please the evil-minded son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra.


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Bhagavad Gita 1.24-35


All the great warriors of the Kauravas and Pandavas are gathered on the battlefield of kurukshetra.

The resounding battle-cry of the Kauravas is countered by the transcendental conch shells sounds of Krishna and Arjun's conch-shell. These sounds from the Pandavas shatters the hearts of the Kaurava's even before the battle has begun.


Audio Recording


Bhagavad Gita 1.24

sañjaya uvāca

evam ukto hṛṣīkeśo
guḍākeśena bhārata
senayor ubhayor madhye
sthāpayitvā rathottamam

Synonyms

sañjayaḥ uvāca — Sañjaya said; evam — thus; uktaḥ — addressed; hṛṣīkeśaḥ — Lord Kṛṣṇa; guḍākeśena — by Arjuna; bhārata — O descendant of Bharata; senayoḥ — of the armies; ubhayoḥ — both; madhye — in the midst; sthāpayitvā — placing; ratha-uttamam — the finest chariot.

Translation
Sañjaya said: Being addressed thus by Arjuna the conqueror of ignorance, Lord KṛṣṇaHṛṣīkeśaḥ, the master of the senses who is also the master of all living beings,  drew up their wonderful chariot in the middle of both the armies.


Bhagavad Gita 1.25

bhīṣma-droṇa-pramukhataḥ
sarveṣāṁ ca mahī-kṣitām
uvāca pārtha paśyaitān
samavetān kurūn iti

Synonyms

bhīṣma — Grandfather Bhīṣma; droṇa — the teacher Droṇa; pramukhataḥ — in front of; sarveṣām — all; ca — also; mahī-kṣitām — chiefs of the world; uvāca — said; pārtha — O son of Pṛthā; paśya — just behold; etān — all of them; samavetān — assembled; kurūn — the members of the Kuru dynasty; iti — thus.

Translation
There in front of Bhīṣma, Droṇa and all the other chieftains of the world, Lord Hṛṣīkeśaḥ said, “My dear cousin Pārtha, son of my aunt Kuntī, just behold all the members of the Kuru dynasty assembled here.”


Bhagavad Gita 1.26

tatrāpaśyat sthitān pārthaḥ
pitṝn atha pitāmahān
ācāryān mātulān bhrātṝn
putrān pautrān sakhīṁs tathā
śvaśurān suhṛdaś caiva
senayor ubhayor api

Synonyms

tatra — there; apaśyat — he could see; sthitān — standing; pārthaḥ — Arjuna; pitṝn — fathers; atha — also; pitāmahān — grandfathers; ācāryān — teachers; mātulān — maternal uncles; bhrātṝn — brothers; putrān — sons; pautrān — grandsons; sakhīn — friends; tathā — too; śvaśurān — fathers-in-law; suhṛdaḥ — well-wishers; ca — also; eva — certainly; senayoḥ — of the armies; ubhayoḥ — of both parties; api — including.

Translation
Within both the armies Arjuna could see his fathers, grandfathers, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons, and friends standing there, including his fathers-in-law and his well-wishers and relatives.


Bhagavad Gita 1.27

tān samīkṣya sa kaunteyaḥ
sarvān bandhūn avasthitān
kṛpayā parayāviṣṭo
viṣīdann idam abravīt

Synonyms

tān — all of them; samīkṣya — after seeing; saḥ — he; kaunteyaḥ — the son of Kuntī; sarvān — all kinds of; bandhūn — relatives; avasthitān — situated; kṛpayā — by compassion; parayā — of a high grade; āviṣṭaḥ — overwhelmed; viṣīdan — while lamenting; idam — thus; abravīt — spoke.

Translation
When the son of Kuntī, Arjuna, saw all these varieties of friends and relatives, he became overwhelmed with great compassion for them and spoke thus.


Bhagavad Gita 1.28

arjuna uvāca

dṛṣṭvemaṁ sva-janaṁ kṛṣṇa
yuyutsuṁ samupasthitam
sīdanti mama gātrāṇi
mukhaṁ ca pariśuṣyati

Synonyms 

arjunaḥ uvāca — Arjuna said; dṛṣṭvā — after seeing; imam — all these; sva-janam — kinsmen; kṛṣṇa — O Kṛṣṇa; yuyutsum — all in a fighting spirit; samupasthitam — present; sīdanti — are quivering; mama — my; gātrāṇi — limbs of the body; mukham — mouth; ca — also; pariśuṣyati — is drying up.

Translation
Arjuna said: My dear Kṛṣṇa, seeing my friends and kinsmen present before me in such an eager fighting spirit, I feel the limbs of my body quivering and my mouth drying up.

Bhagavad Gita 1.29

vepathuś ca śarīre me
roma-harṣaś ca jāyate
gāṇḍīvaṁ sraṁsate hastāt
tvak caiva paridahyate

Synonyms

vepathuḥ — trembling of the body; ca — also; śarīre — on the body; me — my; roma-harṣaḥ — standing of hair on end; ca — also; jāyate — is taking place; gāṇḍīvam — the bow of Arjuna; sraṁsate — is slipping; hastāt — from the hand; tvak — skin; ca — also; eva — certainly; paridahyate — is burning.

Translation
My whole body is trembling, my hair is standing on end, my bow the great Gāṇḍīva is slipping from my hand, and my skin is burning.


Bhagavad Gita 1.30

na ca śaknomy avasthātuṁ
bhramatīva ca me manaḥ
nimittāni ca paśyāmi
viparītāni keśava

Synonyms

na — nor; ca — also; śaknomi — am I able; avasthātum — to stay; bhramati — forgetting; iva — as; ca — and; me — my; manaḥ — mind; nimittāni — causes; ca — also; paśyāmi — I see; viparītāni — just the opposite; keśava — O killer of the demon Keśī (Kṛṣṇa).

Translation
I am unable to stay here any longer. I am forgetting myself, and my mind is spinning and I see only the cause of great misfortune, O Kṛṣṇa, killer of Keśī, the demon of attachment.


Bhagavad Gita 1.31

na ca śreyo ’nupaśyāmi
hatvā sva-janam āhave
na kāṅkṣe vijayaṁ kṛṣṇa
na ca rājyaṁ sukhāni ca

Synonyms

na — nor; ca — also; śreyaḥ — good; anupaśyāmi — do I foresee; hatvā — by killing; sva-janam — my own kinsmen; āhave — in the fight; na — nor; kāṅkṣe — do I desire; vijayam — victory; kṛṣṇa — O Kṛṣṇa; na — nor; ca — also; rājyam — kingdom; sukhāni — happiness thereof; ca — also.

Translation
Nothing good do I see coming from killing my own kinsmen in this battle, nor do I desire any subsequent victory, kingdom or happiness out of this my dear Kṛṣṇa.

Bhagavad Gita 1.32-35

kiṁ no rājyena govinda
kiṁ bhogair jīvitena vā
yeṣām arthe kāṅkṣitaṁ no
rājyaṁ bhogāḥ sukhāni ca

ta ime ’vasthitā yuddhe
prāṇāṁs tyaktvā dhanāni ca
ācāryāḥ pitaraḥ putrās
tathaiva ca pitāmahāḥ

mātulāḥ śvaśurāḥ pautrāḥ
śyālāḥ sambandhinas tathā
etān na hantum icchāmi
ghnato ’pi madhusūdana

api trailokya-rājyasya
hetoḥ kiṁ nu mahī-kṛte
nihatya dhārtarāṣṭrān naḥ
kā prītiḥ syāj janārdana

Synonyms

kim — of what use; naḥ — to us; rājyena — is the kingdom; govinda — O Kṛṣṇa; kim — what; bhogaiḥ — enjoyment; jīvitena — living; — either; yeṣām — of whom; arthe — for the sake; kāṅkṣitam — is desired; naḥ — by us; rājyam — kingdom; bhogāḥ — material enjoyment; sukhāni — all happiness; ca — also; te — all of them; ime — these; avasthitāḥ — situated; yuddhe — on this battlefield; prāṇān — lives; tyaktvā — giving up; dhanāni — riches; ca — also; ācāryāḥ — teachers; pitaraḥ — fathers; putrāḥ — sons; tathā — as well as; eva — certainly; ca — also; pitāmahāḥ — grandfathers; mātulāḥ — maternal uncles; śvaśurāḥ — fathers-in-law; pautrāḥ — grandsons; śyālāḥ — brothers-in-law; sambandhinaḥ — relatives; tathā — as well as; etān — all these; na — never; hantum — to kill; icchāmi — do I wish; ghnataḥ — being killed; api — even; madhusūdana — O killer of the demon Madhu (Kṛṣṇa); api — even if; trai-lokya — of the three worlds; rājyasya — for the kingdom; hetoḥ — in exchange; kim nu — what to speak of; mahī-kṛte — for the sake of the earth; nihatya — by killing; dhārtarāṣṭrān — the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra; naḥ — our; — what; prītiḥ — pleasure; syāt — will there be; janārdana — O maintainer of all living entities.

Translation
Of what use is this kingdom O Govinda? What enjoyment or happiness will I get even from life itself when all those for whom I may desire these things for, are now arrayed on this battlefield?
O Madhusūdana, when teachers, fathers, sons, grandfathers, maternal uncles, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law and other relatives are ready to give up their lives and properties and are standing before me, why should I wish to kill them, even though they might otherwise kill me?
O maintainer of all living entities, I am not prepared to fight with them even in exchange for the three worlds, let alone this earth. What pleasure will there be from killing the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra?


To Top of this section - BG 1.24-35

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Bhagavad Gita 1.36-41


On the battlefield of Kurukshetra, seeing his relatives and associates arrayed against him, and overcome by compassion for them, Arjun loses heart to fight. He relies on scriptural teachings to take the high moral ground to support his not wanting to fight and appeals to Kṛṣṇa to clear his doubts.


Audio Recording


Bhagavad Gita 1.36

pāpam evāśrayed asmān
hatvaitān ātatāyinaḥ
tasmān nārhā vayaṁ hantuṁ
dhārtarāṣṭrān sa-bāndhavān
sva-janaṁ hi kathaṁ hatvā
sukhinaḥ syāma mādhava

Synonyms

pāpam — vices; eva — certainly; āśrayet — must come upon; asmān — us; hatvā — by killing; etān — all these; ātatāyinaḥ — aggressors; tasmāt — therefore; na — never; arhāḥ — deserving; vayam — we; hantum — to kill; dhārtarāṣṭrān — the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra; sa-bāndhavān — along with friends; sva-janam — kinsmen; hi — certainly; katham — how; hatvā — by killing; sukhinaḥ — happy; syāma — will we become; mādhava — O Kṛṣṇa, husband of the goddess of fortune.

Translation
We will be taking shelter of sinful activities by killing these aggressors. Therefore it is certainly not deserving that we kill the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra and our friends and relatives. What should we gain and be happy O Kṛṣṇa, husband of the goddess of fortune, by killing our own kinsmen?


Bhagavad Gita 1.37-38

yady apy ete na paśyanti
lobhopahata-cetasaḥ
kula-kṣaya-kṛtaṁ doṣaṁ
mitra-drohe ca pātakam

kathaṁ na jñeyam asmābhiḥ
pāpād asmān nivartitum
kula-kṣaya-kṛtaṁ doṣaṁ
prapaśyadbhir janārdana

Synonyms

yadi — if; api — even though; ete — they; na — do not; paśyanti — see; lobha — by greed; upahata — overpowered; cetasaḥ — their hearts; kula-kṣaya — in killing the family; kṛtam — done; doṣam — fault; mitra-drohe — in quarreling with friends; ca — also; pātakam — sinful reactions; katham — why; na — should not; jñeyam — be known; asmābhiḥ — by us; pāpāt — from sins; asmāt — these; nivartitum — to cease; kula-kṣaya — in the destruction of a dynasty; kṛtam — done; doṣam — crime; prapaśyadbhiḥ — by those who can see; janārdana — O Kṛṣṇa.

Translation
O Janārdana, although these men are overtaken by greed their hearts and see no fault in killing one’s family or quarreling with friends, why should we, who can see the crime in destroying an entire dynasty, engage in these criminal sinful acts?


Bhagavad Gita 1.39

kula-kṣaye praṇaśyanti
kula-dharmāḥ sanātanāḥ
dharme naṣṭe kulaṁ kṛtsnam
adharmo ’bhibhavaty uta

Synonyms

kula-kṣaye — in destroying the family; praṇaśyanti — become vanquished; kula-dharmāḥ — the family traditions; sanātanāḥ — eternal; dharme — religion; naṣṭe — being destroyed; kulam — family; kṛtsnam — whole; adharmaḥ — irreligion; abhibhavati — transforms; uta — it is said

Translation
It is said that in the destruction of the family and dynasty, the eternal family dharma tradition is destroyed completely and that transforms to irreligious practice for the family.


Bhagavad Gita 1.40

adharmābhibhavāt kṛṣṇa
praduṣyanti kula-striyaḥ
strīṣu duṣṭāsu vārṣṇeya
jāyate varṇa-saṅkaraḥ

Synonyms

adharma — irreligion; abhibhavāt — having become predominant; kṛṣṇa — O Kṛṣṇa; praduṣyanti — become polluted; kula-striyaḥ — women of the family; strīṣu — by the womanhood; duṣṭāsu — being so polluted; vārṣṇeya — O descendant of Vṛṣṇi; jāyate — comes into being; varṇa-saṅkaraḥ — unwanted progeny.

Translation
When irreligion becomes prominent in the family, O Kṛṣṇa, the women of the family become polluted, and from this degradation of womanhood, O descendant of Vṛṣṇi, comes unwanted progeny (living an animal-like life of wanton sense-gratification.)


Bhagavad Gita 1.41

saṅkaro narakāyaiva
kula-ghnānāṁ kulasya ca
patanti pitaro hy eṣāṁ
lupta-piṇḍodaka-kriyāḥ

Synonyms

saṅkaraḥ — such unwanted children; narakāya — make for hellish life; eva — certainly; kula-ghnānām — for those who are killers of the family; kulasya — for the family; ca — also; patanti — fall down; pitaraḥ — forefathers; hi — certainly; eṣām — of them; lupta — cease; piṇḍa — of offerings of food; udaka — and water; kriyāḥ — performances.

Translation
An increase of unwanted population certainly causes hellish life both for the family and for those who destroy the family tradition. The ancestors of such corrupt families fall down, because the performances for offering them piṇḍa—food and water, cease.


To Top of this section -  BG 1.36-41

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Bhagavad Gita - 1.42-46


Arjun is convinced that  by fighting his relatives, the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, and friends and others gathered on the battlefield of Kurukṣetra he will be committing many sinful acts for which they will all go to the various hells* for punishment reserved for those who commit such criminal acts. Overwhelmed by grief, Arjuna sets aside his bow and declines to fight.

*The 28 major hells described


Audio Recording


Bhagavad Gita 1.42

doṣair etaiḥ kula-ghnānāṁ
varṇa-saṅkara-kārakaiḥ
utsādyante jāti-dharmāḥ
kula-dharmāś ca śāśvatāḥ

Synonyms

doṣaiḥ — by such faults; etaiḥ — all these; kula-ghnānām — of the destroyers of the family; varṇa-saṅkara — of (unqualified) unwanted children; kārakaiḥ — which are causes; utsādyante — are ruined; jāti-dharmāḥ — social and religious community duties; kula-dharmāḥ — family duties; ca — also; śāśvatāḥ — eternal.

Translation
By the evil deeds of those who destroy the noble civilized culture of family traditions and thus give rise to unqualified unwanted children, all kinds of social and familial  duties  and welfare activities are ruined.


Bhagavad Gita 1.43

utsanna-kula-dharmāṇāṁ
manuṣyāṇāṁ janārdana
narake niyataṁ vāso
bhavatīty anuśuśruma

Synonyms

utsanna — spoiled; kula-dharmāṇām — of those who have the family traditions; manuṣyāṇām — of such men; janārdana — O Kṛṣṇa; narake — in hell; niyatam — always; vāsaḥ — residence; bhavati — it so becomes; iti — thus; anuśuśruma — I have heard by disciplic succession.

Translation
O Kṛṣṇa, Janārdana, maintainer of all people, I have heard by disciplic succession that those whose family traditions are destroyed always dwell in hell.


Bhagavad Gita 1.44

aho bata mahat pāpaṁ
kartuṁ vyavasitā vayam
yad rājya-sukha-lobhena
hantuṁ sva-janam udyatāḥ

Synonyms

aho — alas; bata — how astonishing it is; mahat — grave, great; pāpam — sins; kartum — to perform; vyavasitāḥ — have decided; vayam — we; yat — because; rājya-sukha-lobhena — driven by greed for royal happiness; hantum — to kill; sva-janam — kinsmen; udyatāḥ — preparing.

Translation
Alas! how astonishing it is that we have decided to commit such grave sinful acts! Driven by the greed to enjoy royal happiness, we are prepared to kill our own kinsmen.


Bhagavad Gita 1.45

yadi mām apratīkāram
aśastraṁ śastra-pāṇayaḥ
dhārtarāṣṭrā raṇe hanyus

tan me kṣema-taraṁ bhavet

Synonyms

yadi — even if; mām — me; apratīkāram — without resising; aśastram — weaponless; śastra-pāṇayaḥ — those with weapons in hand; dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ — the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra; raṇe — on the battlefield; hanyuḥ — may kill; tat — that; me — for me; kṣema-taram — better; bhavet — would be.

Translation
Even if I stand un-resisting and weaponless in front of the fully armed sons of  Dhṛtarāṣṭra and be killed by them on the battlefield, it would be far better for me.


Bhagavad Gita 1.46

sañjaya uvāca

evam uktvārjunaḥ saṅkhye
rathopastha upāviśat
visṛjya sa-śaraṁ cāpaṁ
śoka-saṁvigna-mānasaḥ

Synonyms

añjayaḥ uvāca — Sañjaya said; evam — thus; uktvā — saying; arjunaḥ — Arjuna; saṅkhye — in the battlefield; ratha — of the chariot; upasthe — on the seat; upāviśat — sat down again; visṛjya — putting aside; sa-śaram — along with arrows; cāpam — the bow; śoka — by lamentation; saṁvigna — distressed; mānasaḥ — within the mind.

Translation
Sañjaya said: Having spoken like this, Arjuna cast aside his bow and arrows and sat down on the chariot, his mind overwhelmed with grief.


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This concludes Chapter 1 of Bhagavad Gita for All
"Observing the Armies on the Battlefield of Kurukshetra
& The Consequences of War"

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