Arjun is paralyzed by grief on seeing his relatives arrayed against him on the battlefield. Seeing Arjun in such a condition of depression and anxiety, Krishna speaks to Arjun those words meant to remove the darkest of ignorance and fear.
śrī-bhagavān uvāca — the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; kutaḥ — wherefrom; tvā — unto you; kaśmalam — dirtiness; idam — this lamentation; viṣame — in this hour of crisis; samupasthitam — arrived; anārya — persons who do not know the value of life; juṣṭam — practiced by; asvargyam — which does not lead to higher planets; akīrti — infamy; karam — the cause of; arjuna — O Arjuna.
Translation The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: O Arjuna, how has this contamination and lamentation come upon you in this critical hour. This is practiced by person who does not know value of life, it does not lead one to the higher planet and will be the cause of infamy.
klaibyam — impotence; mā sma — do not; gamaḥ — take to; pārtha — O son of Pṛthā; na — never; etat — this; tvayi — unto you; upapadyate — is beﬁtting; kṣudram — petty; hṛdaya — of the heart; daurbalyam — weakness; tyaktvā — giving up; uttiṣṭha — get up; param-tapa — O chastiser of the enemies
Translation O son of Pṛthā, do not yield to the impotence. It is not befitting you. O chastiser of the enemy, give up this petty weakness of heart and get up.
Demoralized, traumatized and grief-stricken at the prospect of deaths of so many family members at his behest, Arjun admits he is unable to see what is right action for him in this situation.Confused, and in desperation, Arjun surrenders to Krishna as His student and disciple. Arjun begs guidance as to the proper action for him to take.
arjunaḥ uvāca — Arjuna said; katham — how; bhīṣmam — Bhīṣma; aham — I; saṅkhye — in the ﬁght; droṇam — Droṇa; ca — also; madhu-sūdana — O killer of Madhu; iṣubhiḥ — with arrows; pratiyotsyāmi — shall counterattack; pūjā-arhau — those who are worshipable; ari-sūdana — O killer of the enemies.
Translation Arjuna said: O killer of Madhu, O killer of enemies, how shall I counterattack worship-able men like Bhīṣma and Droṇa, with arrows?
Bhagavad Gita 2.5
gurūn ahatvā hi mahānubhāvān śreyo bhoktuṁ bhaikṣyam apīha loke hatvārtha-kāmāṁs tu gurūn ihaiva bhuñjīya bhogān rudhira-pradigdhān
gurūn — the superiors; ahatvā — not killing; hi — certainly; mahā-anubhāvān — great souls; śreyaḥ — it is better; bhoktum — to enjoy life; bhaikṣyam — by begging; api — even; iha — in this life; loke — in this world; hatvā — killing; artha — gain; kāmān — desiring; tu — but; gurūn — superiors; iha — in this world; eva — certainly; bhuñjīya — one has to enjoy; bhogān — enjoyable things; rudhira — blood; pradigdhān — tainted with.
Translation According to great souls, It is better to enjoy life by begging in this world rather than living at the cost of the lives of great souls who are my teachers. Even though they are desiring to gain material gain. If these superiors are killed, whatever we gain will be tainted with blood.
Bhagavad Gita 2.6
na caitad vidmaḥ kataran no garīyo yad vā jayema yadi vā no jayeyuḥ yān eva hatvā na jijīviṣāmas te ’vasthitāḥ pramukhe dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ
na — nor; ca — also; etat — this; vidmaḥ — do we know; katarat — which; naḥ — for us; garīyaḥ — better; yat vā — whether; jayema — we may conquer; yadi — if; vā — or; naḥ — us; jayeyuḥ — they conquer; yān — those who; eva — certainly; hatvā — by killing; na — never; jijīviṣāmaḥ — we would want to live; te — all of them; avasthitāḥ — are situated; pramukhe — in the front; dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ — the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra.
Translation We do not know which is better – we conquering them or they conquering us. If we killed the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, standing in front of us, we would not want to live.
Bhagavad Gita 2.7
kārpaṇya-doṣopahata-svabhāvaḥ pṛcchāmi tvāṁ dharma-sammūḍha-cetāḥ yac chreyaḥ syān niścitaṁ brūhi tan me śiṣyas te ’haṁ śādhi māṁ tvāṁ prapannam
kārpaṇya — of miserliness; doṣa — by the weakness; upahata — being afﬂicted; svabhāvaḥ — characteristics; pṛcchāmi — I am asking; tvām — unto You; dharma — religion; sammūḍha — bewildered; cetāḥ — in heart; yat — what; śreyaḥ — all-good; syāt — may be; niścitam — conﬁdently; brūhi — tell; tat — that; me — unto me; śiṣyaḥ — disciple; te — Your; aham — I am; śādhi — just instruct; mām — me; tvām — unto You; prapannam — surrendered.
Translation I am now afflicted with this miserly defect and am bewildered so now I am asking you to please guide me about my duty, and for certainty what is best for me. Now I am Your disciple, and a soul surrendered unto You. So Please instruct me.
Bhagavad Gita 2.8
na hi prapaśyāmi mamāpanudyād yac chokam ucchoṣaṇam indriyāṇām avāpya bhūmāv asapatnam ṛddhaṁ rājyaṁ surāṇām api cādhipatyam
na — do not; hi — certainly; prapaśyāmi — I see; mama — my; apanudyāt — can drive away; yat — that which; śokam — lamentation; ucchoṣaṇam — drying up; indriyāṇām — of the senses; avāpya — achieving; bhūmau — on the earth; asapatnam — without rival; ṛddham — prosperous; rājyam — kingdom; surāṇām — of the demigods; api — even; ca — also; ādhipatyam — supremacy.
Translation I certainly do not have any means to drive away this lamentation and it is drying up my senses. Even if i achieve prosperous kingdom of the demigods on the earth even then I will not be able to overcome this grief.
Overcome by sentiment and the attachment to his family and relatives, Arjun gives up and declines to fight.He would sooner live by begging or die himself rather than kill his relatives--even in the cause of righteousness. Arjun puts the life of his evil-minded relatives as paramount over fulfilling his duty and dharma. With a sarcastic smile Lord Krishna calls Arjun out on this self-serving weakness, and points out the facts.
Bhagavad Gita 2.9
evam uktvā hṛṣīkeśaṁ guḍākeśaḥ paran-tapaḥ na yotsya iti govindam uktvā tūṣṇīṁ babhūva ha
sañjayaḥ uvāca — Sañjaya said; evam — thus; uktvā — speaking; hṛṣīkeśam — unto Kṛṣṇa, the master of the senses; guḍākeśaḥ — Arjuna, the master of curbing ignorance; param-tapaḥ — the chastiser of the enemies; na yotsye — I shall not ﬁght; iti — thus; govindam — unto Kṛṣṇa, the giver of pleasure to the senses; uktvā — saying; tūṣṇīm — silent; babhūva — became; ha — certainly.
Translation Sañjaya said to King Dhritrashtra: After speaking like this, Arjuna, punisher of enemies, said to Lord Kṛṣṇa "Govinda, I shall certainly not fight" and then he became silent.
tam — unto him; uvāca — said; hṛṣīkeśaḥ — the master of the senses, Kṛṣṇa; prahasan — smiling; iva — like that; bhārata — O Dhṛtarāṣṭra, descendant of Bharata; senayoḥ — of the armies; ubhayoḥ — of both parties; madhye — between; viṣīdantam — unto the lamenting one; idam — the following; vacaḥ — words.
Translation At that time, Lord Kṛṣṇa, with expression on his face like a smile, addressed the following words to the lamenting Arjuna.
Bhagavad Gita 2.11
aśocyān anvaśocas tvaṁ prajñā-vādāṁś ca bhāṣase gatāsūn agatāsūṁś ca nānuśocanti paṇḍitāḥ
śrī-bhagavān uvāca — the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; aśocyān — not worthy of lamentation; anvaśocaḥ — you are lamenting; tvam — you; prajñā-vādān — learned talks; ca — also; bhāṣase — speaking; gata — lost; asūn — life; agata — not passed; asūn — life; ca — also; na — never; anuśocanti — lament; paṇḍitāḥ — the learned.
Translation The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: While speaking learned words, you are mourning for that which is not worthy of lamenting but you have forgotten the purpose of life. Those who are wise or paṇḍitāḥ lament neither for the living nor for the dead.
Bhagavad Gita 2.12
na tv evāhaṁ jātu nāsaṁ na tvaṁ neme janādhipāḥ na caiva na bhaviṣyāmaḥ sarve vayam ataḥ param
na — never; tu — but; eva — certainly; aham — I; jātu — at any time; na — did not; āsam — exist; na — not; tvam — you; na — not; ime — all these; jana-adhipāḥ — kings; na — never; ca — also; eva — certainly; na — not; bhaviṣyāmaḥ — shall exist; sarvevayam — all of us; ataḥ param — hereafter.
Translation Never was there a time that I became non existent, nor you, nor all these kings; nor in the future shall any of us not exist.
Bhagavad Gita 2.13
dehino ’smin yathā dehe kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā tathā dehāntara-prāptir dhīras tatra na muhyati
dehinaḥ — of the embodied; asmin — in this; yathā — as; dehe — in the body; kaumāram — boyhood; yauvanam — youth; jarā — old age; tathā — similarly; deha-antara — of transference of the body; prāptiḥ — achievement; dhīraḥ — the sober; tatra — thereupon; na — never; muhyati — is deluded.
Translation Just as the embodied soul, in this body, continuously passes, from boyhood to youth to old age, the soul transfers into another body at death. Therefore a balanced person is not deluded by such a change.
Bhagavad Gita 2.14
mātrā-sparśās tu kaunteya śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkha-dāḥ āgamāpāyino ’nityās tāṁs titikṣasva bhārata
mātrā-sparśāḥ — sensory perception; tu — only; kaunteya — O son of Kuntī; śīta — winter; uṣṇa — summer; sukha — happiness; duḥkha — and pain; dāḥ — giving; āgama — appearing; apāyinaḥ — disappearing; anityāḥ — nonpermanent; tān — all of them; titikṣasva — just try to tolerate; bhārata — O descendant of the Bharata dynasty.
Translation It is the sensory perception of appearance and in due course disappearance of winter, summer, happiness and distress, O son of Kuntī. They are all nonpermanent, O scion of Bharata, and one must learn to tolerate them.
Lord Kṛṣṇa explains to Arjun that the perishable body houses the imperishable, 'sat' consciousness and soul-self.
Being full with soul-consciousness eliminates pain and sorrow, while bodily consciousness is the cause of sorrow and pain.
Arjun is advised to be tolerant the appearance & disappearance of the 'asat'-- the changeable.
That which is 'asat' can never become 'sat' or permanent, and that which is constant, 'sat' can never be destroyed.
Bhagavad Gita 2.15
yaṁ hi na vyathayanty ete puruṣaṁ puruṣarṣabha sama-duḥkha-sukhaṁ dhīraṁ so ’mṛtatvāya kalpate
yam — one to whom; hi — certainly; na — never; vyathayanti — are distressing; ete — all these; puruṣam — to a person; puruṣa-ṛṣabha — O best among men; sama — unaltered; duḥkha — in distress; sukham — and happiness; dhīram — patient; saḥ — he; amṛtatvāya — for liberation; kalpate — is considered eligible.
Translation O best among men (Arjun), the person who is unaltered by happiness and distress and is steady in both is considered eligible for liberation.
Bhagavad Gita 2.16
nāsato vidyate bhāvo nābhāvo vidyate sataḥ ubhayor api dṛṣṭo ’ntas tv anayos tattva-darśibhiḥ
na — never; asataḥ — of the nonexistent; vidyate — there is; bhāvaḥ — endurance; na — never; abhāvaḥ — changing quality; vidyate — there is; sataḥ — of the eternal; ubhayoḥ — of the two; api — verily; dṛṣṭaḥ — observed; antaḥ — conclusion; tu — indeed; anayoḥ — of them; tattva — of the truth; darśibhiḥ — by the seers.
Translation Seers of the truth have observed and concluded that one which is nonexistent has no endurance and the eternal [the soul] does not change.
Bhagavad Gita 2.17
avināśi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idaṁ tatam vināśam avyayasyāsya na kaścit kartum arhati
avināśi — imperishable; tu — but; tat — that; viddhi — know it; yena — by whom; sarvam — all of the body; idam — this; tatam — pervaded; vināśam — destruction; avyayasya — of the imperishable; asya — of it; nakaścit — no one; kartum — to do; arhati — is able.
Translation Know that which spreads through entire body is indestructible. That imperishable soul no one can destroy.
Bhagavad Gita 2.18
antavanta ime dehā nityasyoktāḥ śarīriṇaḥ anāśino ’prameyasya tasmād yudhyasva bhārata
anta-vantaḥ — perishable; ime — all these; dehāḥ — material bodies; nityasya — eternal in existence; uktāḥ — are said; śarīriṇaḥ — of the embodied soul; anāśinaḥ — never to be destroyed; aprameyasya — immeasurable; tasmāt — therefore; yudhyasva — ﬁght; bhārata — O descendant of Bharata.
Translation All these material bodies are perishable. The embodied soul is eternal, never to be destroyed and is immeasurable, therefore, fight, O descendant of Bharata.
Lord Kṛṣṇa tells Arjun, 'He who is in knowledge, knows that the self is not killed and the soul self never kills...'
This is not to encourage killing, but in the interest of righteous action, killing is permitted according to regulations.
Killing is never whimsical or random. It is the duty of a kshatriya (Arjun) to fight for the protection of the population and the weak, according to his dharma.
Bhagavad Gita 2.19
ya enaṁ vetti hantāraṁ yaś cainaṁ manyate hatam ubhau tau na vijānīto nāyaṁ hanti na hanyate
yaḥ — anyone who; enam — this; vetti — knows; hantāram — the killer; yaḥ — anyone who; ca — also; enam — this; manyate — thinks; hatam — killed; ubhau — both; tau — they; na — never; vijānītaḥ — are in knowledge; na — never; ayam — this; hanti — kills; na — nor; hanyate — is killed.
Translation He who knows this that the living entity is the slayer or the one who is killed does not understand however one who is in knowledge knows that the self never kills nor is killed.
Bhagavad Gita 2.20
na jāyate mriyate vā kadācin nāyaṁ bhūtvā bhavitā vā na bhūyaḥ ajo nityaḥ śāśvato ’yaṁ purāṇo na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre
na — never; jāyate — takes birth; mriyate — dies; vā — either; kadācit — at any time (past, present or future); na — never; ayam — this; bhūtvā — having come into being; bhavitā — will come to be; vā — or; na — not; bhūyaḥ — or is again coming to be; ajaḥ — unborn; nityaḥ — eternal; śāśvataḥ — permanent; ayam — this; purāṇaḥ — the oldest; na — never; hanyate — is killed; hanyamāne — being killed; śarīre — the body.
Translation Never at any time (past, present or future) such an entity (soul) never dies nor takes birth. This entity has not come into being, does not come into being and will not come into being. This unborn, eternal, permanent and oldest entity is never killed even after body is killed.
Bhagavad Gita 2.21
vedāvināśinaṁ nityaṁ ya enam ajam avyayam kathaṁ sa puruṣaḥ pārtha kaṁ ghātayati hanti kam
veda — knows; avināśinam — indestructible; nityam — always existing; yaḥ — one who; enam — this (soul); ajam — unborn; avyayam — immutable; katham — how; saḥ — that; puruṣaḥ — person; pārtha — O Pārtha (Arjuna); kam — whom; ghātayati — causes to hurt; hanti — kills; kam — whom.
Translation O Pārtha, how can a person who knows that the soul is indestructible, immutable, unborn kill anyone or cause anyone to kill?
vāsāṁsi — garments; jīrṇāni — old and worn out; yathā — just as; vihāya — giving up; navāni — new garments; gṛhṇāti — does accept; naraḥ — a man; aparāṇi — others; tathā — in the same way; śarīrāṇi — bodies; vihāya — giving up; jirṇāni — old and useless; anyāni — different; saṁyāti — verily accepts; navāni — new sets; dehī — the embodied.
Translation Just as a person gives up old warn out garments and accepts new garments, similarly the soul accepts new material body, giving up the old and useless ones.
Bhagavad Gita 2.23
nainaṁ chindanti śastrāṇi nainaṁ dahati pāvakaḥ na cainaṁ kledayanty āpo na śoṣayati mārutaḥ
na — never; enam — this soul; chindanti — can cut to pieces; śastrāṇi — weapons; na — never; enam — this soul; dahati — burns; pāvakaḥ — ﬁre; na — never; ca — also; enam — this soul; kledayanti — moistens; āpaḥ — water; na — never; śoṣayati — dries; mārutaḥ — wind.
Translation This soul cannot be pierced or cut to pieces by any weapon, nor burned by ﬁre, nor drowned by water, nor dried by the wind.
Bhagavad Gita 2.24
acchedyo ’yam adāhyo ’yam akledyo ’śoṣya eva ca nityaḥ sarva-gataḥ sthāṇur acalo ’yaṁ sanātanaḥ
acchedyaḥ — unbreakable; ayam — this soul; adāhyaḥ — unable to be burned; ayam — this soul; akledyaḥ — insoluble; aśoṣyaḥ — not able to be dried; eva — certainly; ca — and; nityaḥ — everlasting; sarva-gataḥ — all-pervading; sthāṇuḥ — unchangeable; acalaḥ — immovable; ayam — this soul; sanātanaḥ — eternally the same.
Translation The individual soul is unbreakable and indivisible, and cannot be burned, is insoluble and cannot be dried. It is all everlasting, all pervading, unchangeable, immovable and eternally the same.
avyaktaḥ — invisible; ayam — this soul; acintyaḥ — inconceivable; ayam — this soul; avikāryaḥ — unchangeable; ayam — this soul; ucyate — is said; tasmāt — therefore; evam — like this; viditvā — knowing it well; enam — this soul; na — do not; anuśocitum — to lament; arhasi — you deserve.
Translation This soul is invisible, inconceivable and unchangeable. Therefore knowing the soul, you should not lament.
atha — if, however; ca — also; enam — this soul; nitya-jātam — always born; nityam — forever; vā — either; manyase — you so think; mṛtam — dead; tathā api — still; tvam — you; mahā-bāho — O mighty-armed one; na — never; enam — about the soul; śocitum — to lament; arhasi — deserve.
Translation Even if you think that the soul will always be born and die forever, you still have no reason to lament, O mighty-armed.
Bhagavad Gita 2.27
jātasya hi dhruvo mṛtyur dhruvaṁ janma mṛtasya ca tasmād aparihārye ’rthe na tvaṁ śocitum arhasi
jātasya — of one who has taken his birth; hi — certainly; dhruvaḥ — a fact; mṛtyuḥ — death; dhruvam — it is also a fact; janma — birth; mṛtasya — of the dead; ca — also; tasmāt — therefore; aparihārye — of that which is unavoidable; arthe — in the matter; na — do not; tvam — you; śocitum — to lament; arhasi — deserve.
Translation One who has taken birth is certain to die, and it is also a fact that after death one is sure to take birth again. Therefore one should not lament in the unavoidable discharge of ones duty.
Bhagavad Gita 2.28
avyaktādīni bhūtāni vyakta-madhyāni bhārata avyakta-nidhanāny eva tatra kā paridevanā
avyakta-ādīni — in the beginning unmanifested; bhūtāni — all that are created; vyakta — manifested; madhyāni — in the middle; bhārata — O descendant of Bharata; avyakta — nonmanifested; nidhanāni — when vanquished; eva — it is all like that; tatra — therefore; kā — what; paridevanā — lamentation.
Translation All that is created is un-manifested in their beginning, manifested in the middle state, and un-manifested again when vanquished. So, O descendant of Bharata, what need is there for lamentation?
Lord Kṛṣṇa is explaining Arjuna about the sinful reactions of neglecting his occupational duty as a Kṣatriya. Great generals would consider that he left the battlefield out of fear. He would lose his reputation, would be infamous and enemies would further fabricate stories adding to the vilification. On the other hand If he were killed on the battlefield he will gain access to heavenly kingdom or he will enjoy the world after conquering earthly kingdom. Therefore Lord Kṛṣṇa advises Arjuna ,O son of Kuntī, to get up with determination and fight.
Special Class Audio Recording (2.29- 2.31)
Bhagavad Gita 2.29
āścarya-vat paśyati kaścid enam āścarya-vad vadati tathaiva cānyaḥ āścarya-vac cainam anyaḥ śṛṇoti śrutvāpy enaṁ veda na caiva kaścit
āścarya-vat — as amazing; paśyati — sees; kaścit — someone; enam — this soul; āścarya-vat — as amazing; vadati — speaks of; tathā — thus; eva — certainly; ca — also; anyaḥ — another; āścarya-vat — similarly amazing; ca — also; enam — this soul; anyaḥ — another; śṛṇoti — hears of; śrutvā — having heard; api — even; enam — this soul; veda — knows; na — never; ca — and; eva — certainly; kaścit — someone.
Translation Some see the soul as amazing, some speak of the soul as being amazing and similarly others have heard of the soul as amazing and even then they cannot understand the nature of the soul.
dehī — the owner of the material body; nityam — eternally; avadhyaḥ — cannot be killed; ayam — this soul; dehe — in the body; sarvasya — of everyone; bhārata — O descendant of Bharata; tasmāt — therefore; sarvāṇi — all; bhūtāni — living entities (that are born); na — never; tvam — you; śocitum — to lament; arhasi — deserve
Translation O descendant of Bharata, the owner of the material body is eternal and cannot be killed and that is the same for everyone in every body. So there is no reason for you to lament for any living entity.
Bhagavad Gita 2.31
sva-dharmam api cāvekṣya na vikampitum arhasi dharmyād dhi yuddhāc chreyo ’nyat kṣatriyasya na vidyate
sva-dharmam — one’s own religious principles; api — also; ca — indeed; avekṣya — considering; na — never; vikampitum — to hesitate; arhasi — you deserve; dharmyāt — for religious principles; hi — indeed; yuddhāt — than ﬁghting; śreyaḥ — better engagement; anyat — any other; kṣatriyasya — of the kṣatriya; na — does not; vidyate — exist.
Translation Considering your own eternal occupational duty there is no better engagement for you as a kṣatriya than fighting on religious principles; and therefore you should not hesitate.
yadṛcchayā — by its own accord; ca — also; upapannam — arrived at; svarga — of the heavenly planets; dvāram — door; apāvṛtam — wide open; sukhinaḥ — very happy; kṣatriyāḥ — the members of the royal order; pārtha — O son of Pṛthā; labhante — do achieve; yuddham — war; īdṛśam — like this
Translation O son of Pṛthā, such kṣatriyas are happy to whom such ﬁghting opportunities come on its own, as it opens all the doors to the heavenly planets for them.
Bhagavad Gita 2.33
atha cet tvam imaṁ dharmyaṁ saṅgrāmaṁ na kariṣyasi tataḥ sva-dharmaṁ kīrtiṁ ca hitvā pāpam avāpsyasi
atha — therefore; cet — if; tvam — you; imam — this; dharmyam — as a religious duty; saṅgrāmam — ﬁghting; na — do not; kariṣyasi — perform; tataḥ — then; sva-dharmam — your religious duty; kīrtim — reputation; ca — also; hitvā — losing; pāpam — sinful reaction; avāpsyasi — will gain
Translation Therefore if you do not perform your occupational duty of fighting, then you will gain sinful reaction for neglecting your duty and you will lose your reputation as a fighter.
Bhagavad Gita 2.34
akīrtiṁ cāpi bhūtāni kathayiṣyanti te ’vyayām sambhāvitasya cākīrtir maraṇād atiricyate
akīrtim — infamy; ca — also; api — over and above; bhūtāni — all people; kathayiṣyanti — will speak; te — of you; avyayām — forever; sambhāvitasya — for a respectable man; ca — also; akīrtiḥ — ill fame; maraṇāt — than death; atiricyate — becomes more
Translation All the people will always talk of your infamy, and such dishonor, for a respectable person, is worse than death
bhayāt — out of fear; raṇāt — from the battleﬁeld; uparatam — ceased; maṁsyante — they will consider; tvām — you; mahā-rathāḥ — the great generals; yeṣām — for whom; ca — also; tvam — you; bahu-mataḥ — in great estimation; bhūtvā — having been; yāsyasi — you will go; lāghavam — decreased in value.
Translation All the great generals, who have considered you great will consider that you left the battlefield out of fear and thus they will decrease your esteem and consider you insignificant.
Bhagavad Gita 2.36
avācya-vādāṁś ca bahūn vadiṣyanti tavāhitāḥ nindantas tava sāmarthyaṁ tato duḥkha-taraṁ nu kim
avācya — unkind; vādān — fabricated words; ca — also; bahūn — many; vadiṣyanti — will say; tava — your; ahitāḥ — enemies; nindantaḥ — while vilifying; tava — your; sāmarthyam — ability; tataḥ — than that; duḥkha-taram — more painful; nu — of course; kim — what is there.
Translation Your enemies will fabricate and vilify your ability. What could be more painful for you?
hataḥ — being killed; vā — either; prāpsyasi — you gain; svargam — the heavenly kingdom; jitvā — by conquering; vā — or; bhokṣyase — you enjoy; mahīm — the world; tasmāt — therefore; uttiṣṭha — get up; kaunteya — O son of Kuntī; yuddhāya — to ﬁght; kṛta — determined; niścayaḥ — in certainty.
Translation If you were killed on the battlefield you will gain access to heavenly kingdom or you will enjoy the world after conquering earthly kingdom. Therefore ,O son of Kuntī, get up with determination and fight.
sukha-duḥkhe same kṛtvā lābhālābhau jayājayau tato yuddhāya yujyasva naivaṁ pāpam avāpsyasi
sukha — happiness; duḥkhe — and distress; same — in equanimity; kṛtvā — doing so; lābha-alābhau — both proﬁt and loss; jaya-ajayau — both victory and defeat; tataḥ — thereafter; yuddhāya — for the sake of ﬁghting; yujyasva — engage (ﬁght); na — never; evam — in this way; pāpam — sinful reaction; avāpsyasi — you will gain
Translation For the sake of fighting do fight, without considering happiness or distress, loss or gain, victory or defeat, as by doing so you will not incur sinful reaction.
Bhagavad Gita 2.39
eṣā te ’bhihitā sāṅkhye buddhir yoge tv imāṁ śṛṇu buddhyā yukto yayā pārtha karma-bandhaṁ prahāsyasi
eṣā — all this; te — unto you; abhihitā — described; sāṅkhye — in analytical study; buddhiḥ — intelligence; yoge — in work without fruitive result; tu — but; imām — this; śṛṇu — just hear; buddhyā — by intelligence; yuktaḥ — dovetailed; yayā — by which; pārtha — O son of Pṛthā; karma-bandham — bondage of reaction; prahāsyasi — you can be released from
Translation All this has been described through analytical study i.e sāṅkhye philosophy. Now listen on how to work jointly with this intelligence and without fruitive results. O son of Pṛthā, when you act with this knowledge of Yoga, linking, you can be released from bondage of Karma
Bhagavad Gita 2.40
nehābhikrama-nāśo ’sti pratyavāyo na vidyate sv-alpam apy asya dharmasya trāyate mahato bhayāt
na — there is not; iha — in this yoga; abhikrama — in endeavoring; nāśaḥ — loss; asti — there is; pratyavāyaḥ — diminution; na — never; vidyate — there is; su-alpam — a little; api — although; asya — of this; dharmasya — occupation; trāyate — releases; mahataḥ — from very great; bhayāt — danger.
Translation In this effort there is no loss or reduction in any way and a little advancement on this path can protect one from the greatest danger.
Bhagavad Gita 2.41
vyavasāyātmikā buddhir ekeha kuru-nandana bahu-śākhā hy anantāś ca buddhayo ’vyavasāyinām
vyavasāya-ātmikā — resolute in Kṛṣṇa consciousness; buddhiḥ — intelligence; ekā — only one; iha — in this world; kuru-nandana — O beloved child of the Kurus; bahu-śākhāḥ — having various branches; hi — indeed; anantāḥ — unlimited; ca — also; buddhayaḥ — intelligence; avyavasāyinām — of those who are not in Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
Translation Those who are resolute in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, their aim is one. O beloved child of the Kurus, the intelligence of those who are irresolute is many-branched or uncertain
kāmātmānaḥ svarga-parā janma-karma-phala-pradām kriyā-viśeṣa-bahulāṁ bhogaiśvarya-gatiṁ prati
mām — all these; puṣpitām — ﬂowery; vācam — words; pravadanti — say; avipaścitaḥ — men with a poor fund of knowledge; veda-vāda-ratāḥ — supposed followers of the Vedas; pārtha — O son of Pṛthā; na — never; anyat — anything else; asti — there is; iti — thus; vādinaḥ — the advocates; kāma-ātmānaḥ — desirous of sense gratiﬁcation; svarga-parāḥ — aiming to achieve heavenly planets; janma-karma-phala-pradām — resulting in good birth and other fruitive reactions; kriyā-viśeṣa — pompous ceremonies; bahulām — various; bhoga — in sense enjoyment; aiśvarya — and opulence; gatim — progress; prati — towards.
Translation Purported followers of the Vedas speak flowery words of the Vedas and lack knowledge. Son of Pṛthā, they are advocating activities which results in constant re-birth and fruitive reactions and are aimed for reaching heavenly planets. They are progressing towards sense gratification and advocating special opulent activities, there is nothing more than this.
Bhagavad Gita 2.44
bhogaiśvarya-prasaktānāṁ tayāpahṛta-cetasām vyavasāyātmikā buddhiḥ samādhau na vidhīyate
bhoga — to material enjoyment; aiśvarya — and opulence; prasaktānām — for those who are attached; tayā — by such things; apahṛta-cetasām — bewildered in mind; vyavasāya-ātmikā — ﬁxed in determination; buddhiḥ — devotional service to the Lord; samādhau — in the controlled mind; na — never; vidhīyate — does take place
Translation Those who are attached to Material enjoyment and opulence are bewildered in mind by such things. This does not happen for those who are fixed in determination in devotional service to the Supreme Lord.
trai-guṇya — pertaining to the three modes of material nature; viṣayāḥ — on the subject matter; vedāḥ — Vedic literatures; nistrai-guṇyaḥ — transcendental to the three modes of material nature; bhava — be; arjuna — O Arjuna; nirdvandvaḥ — without duality; nitya-sattva-sthaḥ — in a pure state of spiritual existence; niryoga-kṣemaḥ — free from ideas of gain and protection; ātma-vān — established in the self
Translation The subject matter of the Vedas pertains to three modes of material nature (mode of goodness, passion and ignorance). O Arjuna, ever remain in the state of goodness (sattva), without duality, free from the desire of acquisition and preservation by being established in the self.
yāvān — all that; arthaḥ — is meant; uda-pāne — in a well of water; sarvataḥ — in all respects; sampluta-udake — in a great reservoir of water; tāvān — similarly; sarveṣu — in all; vedeṣu — Vedic literatures; brāhmaṇasya — of the man who knows the Supreme Brahman; vijānataḥ — who is in complete knowledge.
Translation All the purposes meant to be served by a well of water are available in all respects from a large reservoir of water. Similarly all the purposes of vedas are served by the person who knows the divine and the purpose of the knowledge.
duḥkheṣu — in the threefold miseries; anudvigna-manāḥ — without being agitated in mind; sukheṣu — in happiness; vigata-spṛhaḥ — without being interested; vīta — free from; rāga — attachment; bhaya — fear; krodhaḥ — and anger; sthita-dhīḥ — whose mind is steady; muniḥ — a sage; ucyate — is called
Translation One who is not disturbed in-spite of the threefold miseries. Without being too interested in happiness, one who is free from attachment from fear and anger and has a steady mind is a sage.
Bhagavad Gita 2.57
yaḥ sarvatrānabhisnehas tat tat prāpya śubhāśubham nābhinandati na dveṣṭi tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā
yaḥ — one who; sarvatra — everywhere; anabhisnehaḥ — without affection; tat — that; tat — that; prāpya — achieving; śubha — good; aśubham — evil; na — never; abhinandati — praises; na — never; dveṣṭi — envies; tasya — his; prajñā — perfect knowledge; pratiṣṭhitā — ﬁxed
Translation One who is without affection for achieving good or evil and does not praise or envies it, is fixed in perfect knowledge.
Translation When a person is able to withdraw from the object of the senses to which they are attracted just as the tortoise draws its limbs within the shell, such a person is truly situated in perfect consciousness of knowledge.
viṣayāḥ — objects for sense enjoyment; vinivartante — are practiced to be refrained from; nirāhārasya — by negative restrictions; dehinaḥ — for the embodied; rasa-varjam — giving up the taste; rasaḥ — sense of enjoyment; api — although there is; asya — his; param — far superior things; dṛṣṭvā — by experiencing; nivartate — he ceases from.
Translation One cannot progress by following negative restriction and practicing giving up of the taste of objects of sense enjoyment. This can be ceased by engaging and experiencing a higher taste.
Bhagavad Gita 2.60
yatato hy api kaunteya puruṣasya vipaścitaḥ indriyāṇi pramāthīni haranti prasabhaṁ manaḥ
yatataḥ — while endeavoring; hi — certainly; api — in spite of; kaunteya — O son of Kuntī; puruṣasya — of a man; vipaścitaḥ — full of discriminating knowledge; indriyāṇi — the senses; pramāthīni — agitating; haranti — throw; prasabham — by force; manaḥ — the mind.
Translation Inspite of the efforts, O Son of Kunti, of even the person who is having the knowledge of discrimination, the senses are so strong that the mind agitates.
tāni — those senses; sarvāṇi — all; saṁyamya — keeping under control; yuktaḥ — engaged; āsīta — should be situated; mat-paraḥ — in relationship with Me; vaśe — in full subjugation; hi — certainly; yasya — one whose; indriyāṇi — senses; tasya — his; prajñā — consciousness; pratiṣṭhitā — ﬁxed.
Translation When the senses are kept under control and engaged in me, such a person's senses can be subjugated and fixed in my consciousness.
krodhāt — from anger; bhavati — takes place; sammohaḥ — perfect illusion; sammohāt — from illusion; smṛti — of memory; vibhramaḥ — bewilderment; smṛti-bhraṁśāt — after bewilderment of memory; buddhi-nāśaḥ — loss of intelligence; buddhi-nāśāt — and from loss of intelligence; praṇaśyati — one falls down.
Translation Perfect illusion takes place from anger and from illusion, bewilderment of memory. After the memory is bewildered, destruction of intelligence takes place. From the loss of intelligence one falls down to the material pool of ignorance and illusion.
Bhagavad Gita 2.64
rāga-dveṣa-vimuktais tu viṣayān indriyaiś caran ātma-vaśyair vidheyātmā prasādam adhigacchati
rāga — attachment; dveṣa — and detachment; vimuktaiḥ — by one who has become free from; tu — but; viṣayān — sense objects; indriyaiḥ — by the senses; caran — acting upon; ātma-vaśyaiḥ — under one’s control; vidheya-ātmā — one who follows regulated freedom; prasādam — the mercy of the Lord; adhigacchati — attains.
Translation One who is free from attachments and who acts to detach from the sensory objects by practicing control of senses following regulated principles of freedom attains the mercy of the Lord.
Bhagavad Gita 2.65
prasāde sarva-duḥkhānāṁ hānir asyopajāyate prasanna-cetaso hy āśu buddhiḥ paryavatiṣṭhate
prasāde — on achievement of the causeless mercy of the Lord; sarva — of all; duḥkhānām — material miseries; hāniḥ — destruction; asya — his; upajāyate — takes place; prasanna-cetasaḥ — of the happy-minded; hi — certainly; āśu — very soon; buddhiḥ — intelligence; pari — sufﬁciently; avatiṣṭhate — becomes established
Translation By getting causeless mercy of the Lord all the material threefold miseries are destroyed. Such a person is in a happy state of mind and soon sufficiently established in intelligence.
Bhagavad Gita 2.66
nāsti buddhir ayuktasya na cāyuktasya bhāvanā na cābhāvayataḥ śāntir aśāntasya kutaḥ sukham
na asti — there cannot be; buddhiḥ — transcendental intelligence; ayuktasya — of one who is not connected (with Kṛṣṇa consciousness); na — not; ca — and; ayuktasya — of one devoid of Kṛṣṇa consciousness; bhāvanā — ﬁxed mind (in happiness); na — not; ca — and; abhāvayataḥ — of one who is not ﬁxed; śāntiḥ — peace; aśāntasya — of the unpeaceful; kutaḥ — where is; sukham — happiness
Translation One who is not established in this transcendental intelligence and who is also not connected and devoid of Kṛṣṇa consciousness cannot have a happy mind and cannot be fixed in peace. Where is happiness without a peaceful mind?
Bhagavad Gita 2.67
indriyāṇāṁ hi caratāṁ yan mano ’nuvidhīyate tad asya harati prajñāṁ vāyur nāvam ivāmbhasi
indriyāṇām — of the senses; hi — certainly; caratām — while roaming; yat — with which; manaḥ — the mind; anuvidhīyate — becomes constantly engaged; tat — that; asya — his; harati — takes away; prajñām — intelligence; vāyuḥ — wind; nāvam — a boat; iva — like; ambhasi — on the water.
Translation When the mind becomes constantly engaged to the roaming senses that takes away intelligence just like a boat in the wind is pushed by a strong wind.
yā — what; niśā — is night; sarva — all; bhūtānām — of living entities; tasyām — in that; jāgarti — is wakeful; saṁyamī — the self-controlled; yasyām — in which; jāgrati — are awake; bhūtāni — all beings; sā — that is; niśā — night; paśyataḥ — for the introspective; muneḥ — sage.
Translation What is night for all beings is the time of awakening for the self-controlled; and the time of awakening for all beings is night for the introspective sage.
Bhagavad Gita 2.70
āpūryamāṇam acala-pratiṣṭhaṁ samudram āpaḥ praviśanti yadvat tadvat kāmā yaṁ praviśanti sarve sa śāntim āpnoti na kāma-kāmī
āpūryamāṇam — always being ﬁlled; acala-pratiṣṭham — steadily situated; samudram — the ocean; āpaḥ — waters; praviśanti — enter; yadvat — as; tadvat — so; kāmāḥ — desires; yam — unto whom; praviśanti — enter; sarve — all; saḥ — that person; śāntim — peace; āpnoti — achieves; na — not; kāma-kāmī — one who desires to fulﬁll desires.
Translation A person who is not disturbed by the incessant ﬂow of desires – that enter like rivers into the ocean, which is ever being ﬁlled but is always still – can alone achieve peace, and not the man who strives to satisfy such desires.
vihāya — giving up; kāmān — material desires for sense gratiﬁcation; yaḥ — who; sarvān — all; pumān — a person; carati — lives; niḥspṛhaḥ — desireless; nirmamaḥ — without a sense of proprietorship; nirahaṅkāraḥ — without false ego; saḥ — he; śāntim — perfect peace; adhigacchati — attains
Translation A person who has given up all desires for sense gratiﬁcation, who lives free from desires, who has given up all sense of proprietorship and is devoid of false ego – he alone can attain real peace.
eṣā — this; brāhmī — spiritual; sthitiḥ — situation; pārtha — O son of Pṛthā; na — never; enām — this; prāpya — achieving; vimuhyati — one is bewildered; sthitvā — being situated; asyām — in this; anta-kāle — at the end of life; api — also; brahma-nirvāṇam — the spiritual kingdom of God; ṛcchati — one attains.
Translation That is the way of the spiritual and godly life, after attaining which a man is not bewildered. If one is thus situated even at the hour of death, one can enter into the kingdom of God.