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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 2
"The Eternal Duties of Mankind"

Bhagavad Gita for All - A practical guide to everyday living
Audio Lecture series by Nalin Nirula

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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 2 Quick Links:
BG 2.1-3, BG 2.4-8, BG 2.9-14, BG 2.15-18, BG 2.19-28BG 2.29-37BG 2.38-41BG 2.42-44BG 2.45-46BG 2.56-57BG 2.58-72


Bhagavad Gita 2.1-2.3



Arjun is paralyzed by grief on seeing his relatives arrayed against him on the battlefield. Seeing Arjun in such a condition of depression and anxiety, Krishna speaks to Arjun those words meant to remove the darkest of ignorance and fear.


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Bhagavad Gita 2.1

sañjaya uvāca

taṁ tathā kṛpayāviṣṭam
aśru-pūrṇākulekṣaṇam
viṣīdantam idaṁ vākyam
uvāca madhusūdanaḥ

Synonyms

sañjayaḥ uvāca — Sañjaya said; tam — unto Arjuna; tathā — thus; kṛpayā — by compassion; āviṣṭam — overwhelmed; aśru-pūrṇa-ākula — full of tears; īkṣaṇam — eyes; viṣīdantam — lamenting; idam — these; vākyam — words; uvāca — said; madhu-sūdanaḥ — the killer of Madhu.

Translation
Sañjaya said: Madhusūdana, Kṛṣṇa, spoke following words after seeing Arjuna overwhelmed by compassion, eyes full of tear and lamenting.


Bhagavad Gita 2.2

śrī-bhagavān uvāca

kutas tvā kaśmalam idaṁ
viṣame samupasthitam
anārya-juṣṭam asvargyam
akīrti-karam arjuna

Synonyms

śrī-bhagavān uvāca — the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; kutaḥ — wherefrom; tvā — unto you; kaśmalam — dirtiness; idam — this lamentation; viṣame — in this hour of crisis; samupasthitam — arrived; anārya — persons who do not know the value of life; juṣṭam — practiced by; asvargyam — which does not lead to higher planets; akīrti — infamy; karam — the cause of; arjuna — O Arjuna.

Translation
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: O Arjuna, how has this contamination and lamentation come upon you in this critical hour. This is practiced by person who does not know value of life, it does not lead one to the higher planet and will be the cause of infamy.


Bhagavad Gita 2.3

klaibyaṁ mā sma gamaḥ pārtha
naitat tvayy upapadyate
kṣudraṁ hṛdaya-daurbalyaṁ
tyaktvottiṣṭha paran-tapa

Synonyms

klaibyam — impotence; mā sma — do not; gamaḥ — take to; pārtha — O son of Pṛthā; na — never; etat — this; tvayi — unto you; upapadyate — is befitting; kṣudram — petty; hṛdaya — of the heart; daurbalyam — weakness; tyaktvā — giving up; uttiṣṭha — get up; param-tapa — O chastiser of the enemies

Translation
O son of Pṛthā, do not yield to the impotence. It is not befitting you.
 O chastiser of the enemy, give up this petty weakness of heart and get up.

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Bhagavad Gita 2.4-2.8



Demoralized, traumatized and grief-stricken at the prospect of deaths of so many family members at his behest, Arjun admits he is unable to see what is right action for him in this situation.Confused, and in desperation, Arjun surrenders to Krishna as His student and disciple. Arjun begs guidance as to the proper action for him to take.


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Bhagavad Gita 2.4

arjuna uvāca

kathaṁ bhīṣmam ahaṁ saṅkhye
droṇaṁ ca madhusūdana
iṣubhiḥ pratiyotsyāmi
pūjārhāv ari-sūdana

Synonyms

arjunaḥ uvāca — Arjuna said; katham — how; bhīṣmam — Bhīṣma; aham — I; saṅkhye — in the fight; droṇam — Droṇa; ca — also; madhu-sūdana — O killer of Madhu; iṣubhiḥ — with arrows; pratiyotsyāmi — shall counterattack; pūjā-arhau — those who are worshipable; ari-sūdana — O killer of the enemies.

Translation
Arjuna said: O killer of Madhu, O killer of enemies, how shall I counterattack worship-able men like Bhīṣma and Droṇa, with arrows?


Bhagavad Gita 2.5

gurūn ahatvā hi mahānubhāvān
śreyo bhoktuṁ bhaikṣyam apīha loke
hatvārtha-kāmāṁs tu gurūn ihaiva
bhuñjīya bhogān rudhira-pradigdhān

Synonyms

gurūn — the superiors; ahatvā — not killing; hi — certainly; mahā-anubhāvān — great souls; śreyaḥ — it is better; bhoktum — to enjoy life; bhaikṣyam — by begging; api — even; iha — in this life; loke — in this world; hatvā — killing; artha — gain; kāmān — desiring; tu — but; gurūn — superiors; iha — in this world; eva — certainly; bhuñjīya — one has to enjoy; bhogān — enjoyable things; rudhira — blood; pradigdhān — tainted with.

Translation
According to great souls, It is better to enjoy life by begging in this world rather than living at the cost of the lives of great souls who are my teachers. Even though they are desiring to gain material gain. If these superiors are killed, whatever we gain will be tainted with blood.


Bhagavad Gita 2.6

na caitad vidmaḥ kataran no garīyo
yad vā jayema yadi vā no jayeyuḥ
yān eva hatvā na jijīviṣāmas
te ’vasthitāḥ pramukhe dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ

Synonyms

na — nor; ca — also; etat — this; vidmaḥ — do we know; katarat — which; naḥ — for us; garīyaḥ — better; yat vā — whether; jayema — we may conquer; yadi — if; — or; naḥ — us; jayeyuḥ — they conquer; yān — those who; eva — certainly; hatvā — by killing; na — never; jijīviṣāmaḥ — we would want to live; te — all of them; avasthitāḥ — are situated; pramukhe — in the front; dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ — the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra.

Translation
We do not know which is better – we conquering them or they conquering us. If we killed the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, standing in front of us, we would not want to live.



Bhagavad Gita 2.7

kārpaṇya-doṣopahata-svabhāvaḥ
pṛcchāmi tvāṁ dharma-sammūḍha-cetāḥ
yac chreyaḥ syān niścitaṁ brūhi tan me
śiṣyas te ’haṁ śādhi māṁ tvāṁ prapannam

Synonyms

kārpaṇya — of miserliness; doṣa — by the weakness; upahata — being afflicted; svabhāvaḥ — characteristics; pṛcchāmi — I am asking; tvām — unto You; dharma — religion; sammūḍha — bewildered; cetāḥ — in heart; yat — what; śreyaḥ — all-good; syāt — may be; niścitam — confidently; brūhi — tell; tat — that; me — unto me; śiṣyaḥ — disciple; te — Your; aham — I am; śādhi — just instruct; mām — me; tvām — unto You; prapannam — surrendered.

Translation
I am now afflicted with this miserly defect and am bewildered so now I am asking you to please guide me about my duty, and for certainty what is best for me. Now I am Your disciple, and a soul surrendered unto You. So Please instruct me.



Bhagavad Gita 2.8

na hi prapaśyāmi mamāpanudyād
yac chokam ucchoṣaṇam indriyāṇām
avāpya bhūmāv asapatnam ṛddhaṁ
rājyaṁ surāṇām api cādhipatyam
 

Synonyms

na — do not; hi — certainly; prapaśyāmi — I see; mama — my; apanudyāt — can drive away; yat — that which; śokam — lamentation; ucchoṣaṇam — drying up; indriyāṇām — of the senses; avāpya — achieving; bhūmau — on the earth; asapatnam — without rival; ṛddham — prosperous; rājyam — kingdom; surāṇām — of the demigods; api — even; ca — also; ādhipatyam — supremacy.

Translation
I certainly do not have any means to drive away this lamentation and it is drying up my senses. Even if i achieve prosperous kingdom of the demigods on the earth even then I will not be able to overcome this grief.



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Bhagavad Gita 2.9-2.14 



Overcome by sentiment and the attachment to his family and relatives, Arjun gives up and declines to fight.He would sooner live by begging or die himself rather than kill his relatives--even in the cause of righteousness. Arjun  puts the life of his evil-minded relatives as paramount over fulfilling his duty and dharma. With a sarcastic smile Lord Krishna calls Arjun out on this self-serving weakness, and points out the facts.


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Bhagavad Gita 2.9

sañjaya uvāca

evam uktvā hṛṣīkeśaṁ
guḍākeśaḥ paran-tapaḥ
na yotsya iti govindam
uktvā tūṣṇīṁ babhūva ha

Synonyms

sañjayaḥ uvāca — Sañjaya said; evam — thus; uktvā — speaking; hṛṣīkeśam — unto Kṛṣṇa, the master of the senses; guḍākeśaḥ — Arjuna, the master of curbing ignorance; param-tapaḥ — the chastiser of the enemies; na yotsye — I shall not fight; iti — thus; govindam — unto Kṛṣṇa, the giver of pleasure to the senses; uktvā — saying; tūṣṇīm — silent; babhūva — became; ha — certainly.

Translation
Sañjaya said to King Dhritrashtra: After speaking like this, Arjuna, punisher of enemies, said to Lord Kṛṣṇa "Govinda, I shall certainly not fight" and then he became silent.


Bhagavad Gita 2.10

tam uvāca hṛṣīkeśaḥ
prahasann iva bhārata
senayor ubhayor madhye
viṣīdantam idaṁ vacaḥ

Synonyms

tam — unto him; uvāca — said; hṛṣīkeśaḥ — the master of the senses, Kṛṣṇa; prahasan — smiling; iva — like that; bhārata — O Dhṛtarāṣṭra, descendant of Bharata; senayoḥ — of the armies; ubhayoḥ — of both parties; madhye — between; viṣīdantam — unto the lamenting one; idam — the following; vacaḥ — words.

Translation
At that time, Lord Kṛṣṇa, with expression on his face like a smile, addressed the following words to the lamenting Arjuna.

Bhagavad Gita 2.11

śrī-bhagavān uvāca

aśocyān anvaśocas tvaṁ
prajñā-vādāṁś ca bhāṣase
gatāsūn agatāsūṁś ca
nānuśocanti paṇḍitāḥ

Synonyms

śrī-bhagavān uvāca — the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; aśocyān — not worthy of lamentation; anvaśocaḥ — you are lamenting; tvam — you; prajñā-vādān — learned talks; ca — also; bhāṣase — speaking; gata — lost; asūn — life; agata — not passed; asūn — life; ca — also; na — never; anuśocanti — lament; paṇḍitāḥ — the learned.

Translation
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: While speaking learned words, you are mourning for that which is not worthy of lamenting but you have forgotten the purpose of life. Those who are wise or paṇḍitāḥ lament neither for the living nor for the dead.

Bhagavad Gita 2.12

na tv evāhaṁ jātu nāsaṁ
na tvaṁ neme janādhipāḥ
na caiva na bhaviṣyāmaḥ
sarve vayam ataḥ param

Synonyms

na — never; tu — but; eva — certainly; aham — I; jātu — at any time; na — did not; āsam — exist; na — not; tvam — you; na — not; ime — all these; jana-adhipāḥ — kings; na — never; ca — also; eva — certainly; na — not; bhaviṣyāmaḥ — shall exist; sarve vayam — all of us; ataḥ param — hereafter.

Translation
Never was there a time that I became non existent, nor you, nor all these kings; nor in the future shall any of us not exist.

Bhagavad Gita 2.13

dehino ’smin yathā dehe
kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā
tathā dehāntara-prāptir
dhīras tatra na muhyati

Synonyms

dehinaḥ — of the embodied; asmin — in this; yathā — as; dehe — in the body; kaumāram — boyhood; yauvanam — youth; jarā — old age; tathā — similarly; deha-antara — of transference of the body; prāptiḥ — achievement; dhīraḥ — the sober; tatra — thereupon; na — never; muhyati — is deluded.

Translation
Just as the embodied soul, in this body, continuously passes, from boyhood to youth to old age, the soul transfers into another body at death. Therefore a balanced person is not deluded by such a change.

Bhagavad Gita 2.14

mātrā-sparśās tu kaunteya
śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkha-dāḥ
āgamāpāyino ’nityās
tāṁs titikṣasva bhārata

Synonyms

mātrā-sparśāḥ — sensory perception; tu — only; kaunteya — O son of Kuntī; śīta — winter; uṣṇa — summer; sukha — happiness; duḥkha — and pain; dāḥ — giving; āgama — appearing; apāyinaḥ — disappearing; anityāḥ — nonpermanent; tān — all of them; titikṣasva — just try to tolerate; bhārata — O descendant of the Bharata dynasty.

Translation
It is the sensory perception of appearance and in due course disappearance of winter, summer, happiness and distress, O son of Kuntī. They are all nonpermanent, O scion of Bharata, and one must learn to tolerate them.


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Bhagavad Gita 2.15-2.18



Lord Kṛṣṇa explains to Arjun that the perishable body houses the imperishable, 'sat' consciousness and soul-self.

Being full with soul-consciousness eliminates pain and sorrow, while bodily consciousness is the cause of sorrow and pain.

Arjun is advised to be tolerant the appearance & disappearance of the 'asat'-- the changeable.

That which is 'asat' can never become 'sat' or permanent,  and that which is constant, 'sat' can never be destroyed.


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Bhagavad Gita 2.15

yaṁ hi na vyathayanty ete
puruṣaṁ puruṣarṣabha
sama-duḥkha-sukhaṁ dhīraṁ
so ’mṛtatvāya kalpate

Synonyms

yam — one to whom; hi — certainly; na — never; vyathayanti — are distressing; ete — all these; puruṣam — to a person; puruṣa-ṛṣabha — O best among men; sama — unaltered; duḥkha — in distress; sukham — and happiness; dhīram — patient; saḥ — he; amṛtatvāya — for liberation; kalpate — is considered eligible.

Translation
O best among men (Arjun), the person who is unaltered by happiness and distress and is steady in both is considered eligible for liberation.


Bhagavad Gita 2.16

nāsato vidyate bhāvo
nābhāvo vidyate sataḥ
ubhayor api dṛṣṭo ’ntas
tv anayos tattva-darśibhiḥ

Synonyms

na — never; asataḥ — of the nonexistent; vidyate — there is; bhāvaḥ — endurance; na — never; abhāvaḥ — changing quality; vidyate — there is; sataḥ — of the eternal; ubhayoḥ — of the two; api — verily; dṛṣṭaḥ — observed; antaḥ — conclusion; tu — indeed; anayoḥ — of them; tattva — of the truth; darśibhiḥ — by the seers.

Translation
Seers of the truth have observed and concluded that one which is nonexistent has no endurance and the eternal [the soul] does not change. 


Bhagavad Gita 2.17

avināśi tu tad viddhi
yena sarvam idaṁ tatam
vināśam avyayasyāsya
na kaścit kartum arhati

Synonyms

avināśi — imperishable; tu — but; tat — that; viddhi — know it; yena — by whom; sarvam — all of the body; idam — this; tatam — pervaded; vināśam — destruction; avyayasya — of the imperishable; asya — of it; na kaścit — no one; kartum — to do; arhati — is able.

Translation
Know that which spreads through entire body is indestructible. That imperishable soul no one can destroy.


Bhagavad Gita 2.18

antavanta ime dehā
nityasyoktāḥ śarīriṇaḥ
anāśino ’prameyasya
tasmād yudhyasva bhārata

Synonyms

anta-vantaḥ — perishable; ime — all these; dehāḥ — material bodies; nityasya — eternal in existence; uktāḥ — are said; śarīriṇaḥ — of the embodied soul; anāśinaḥ — never to be destroyed; aprameyasya — immeasurable; tasmāt — therefore; yudhyasva — fight; bhārata — O descendant of Bharata.

Translation
All these material bodies are perishable. The embodied soul is eternal, never to be destroyed and is immeasurable, therefore, fight, O descendant of Bharata.


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Bhagavad Gita 2.19-28



Lord Kṛṣṇa tells Arjun, 'He who is in knowledge, knows that the self is not killed and the soul self never kills...'

This is not to encourage killing, but in the interest of righteous action, killing is permitted according to regulations.

Killing is never whimsical or random. It is the duty of a kshatriya (Arjun) to fight for the protection of the population and the weak, according to his dharma.


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Bhagavad Gita 2.19

ya enaṁ vetti hantāraṁ
yaś cainaṁ manyate hatam
ubhau tau na vijānīto
nāyaṁ hanti na hanyate

Synonyms

yaḥ — anyone who; enam — this; vetti — knows; hantāram — the killer; yaḥ — anyone who; ca — also; enam — this; manyate — thinks; hatam — killed; ubhau — both; tau — they; na — never; vijānītaḥ — are in knowledge; na — never; ayam — this; hanti — kills; na — nor; hanyate — is killed.

Translation
He who knows this that the living entity is the slayer or the one who is killed does not understand however one who is in knowledge knows that the self never kills nor is killed.


Bhagavad Gita 2.20

na jāyate mriyate vā kadācin
nāyaṁ bhūtvā bhavitā vā na bhūyaḥ
ajo nityaḥ śāśvato ’yaṁ purāṇo
na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre

Synonyms

na — never; jāyate — takes birth; mriyate — dies; — either; kadācit — at any time (past, present or future); na — never; ayam — this; bhūtvā — having come into being; bhavitā — will come to be; — or; na — not; bhūyaḥ — or is again coming to be; ajaḥ — unborn; nityaḥ — eternal; śāśvataḥ — permanent; ayam — this; purāṇaḥ — the oldest; na — never; hanyate — is killed; hanyamāne — being killed; śarīre — the body.

Translation
Never at any time (past, present or future) such an entity (soul) never dies nor takes birth. This entity has not come into being, does not come into being and will not come into being. This unborn, eternal, permanent and oldest entity is never killed even after body is killed.


Bhagavad Gita 2.21

vedāvināśinaṁ nityaṁ
ya enam ajam avyayam
kathaṁ sa puruṣaḥ pārtha
kaṁ ghātayati hanti kam

Synonyms

veda — knows; avināśinam — indestructible; nityam — always existing; yaḥ — one who; enam — this (soul); ajam — unborn; avyayam — immutable; katham — how; saḥ — that; puruṣaḥ — person; pārtha — O Pārtha (Arjuna); kam — whom; ghātayati — causes to hurt; hanti — kills; kam — whom.

Translation
O Pārtha, how can a person who knows that the soul is indestructible, immutable, unborn kill anyone or cause anyone to kill?


Bhagavad Gita 2.22

vāsāṁsi jīrṇāni yathā vihāya
navāni gṛhṇāti naro ’parāṇi
tathā śarīrāṇi vihāya jīrṇāny
anyāni saṁyāti navāni dehī

Synonyms

vāsāṁsi — garments; jīrṇāni — old and worn out; yathā — just as; vihāya — giving up; navāni — new garments; gṛhṇāti — does accept; naraḥ — a man; aparāṇi — others; tathā — in the same way; śarīrāṇi — bodies; vihāya — giving up; jirṇāni — old and useless; anyāni — different; saṁyāti — verily accepts; navāni — new sets; dehī — the embodied.

Translation
Just as a person gives up old warn out garments and accepts new garments, similarly the soul accepts new material body, giving up the old and useless ones.


Bhagavad Gita 2.23

nainaṁ chindanti śastrāṇi
nainaṁ dahati pāvakaḥ
na cainaṁ kledayanty āpo
na śoṣayati mārutaḥ

Synonyms

na — never; enam — this soul; chindanti — can cut to pieces; śastrāṇi — weapons; na — never; enam — this soul; dahati — burns; pāvakaḥ — fire; na — never; ca — also; enam — this soul; kledayanti — moistens; āpaḥ — water; na — never; śoṣayati — dries; mārutaḥ — wind.

Translation
This soul cannot be pierced or cut to pieces by any weapon, nor burned by fire, nor drowned by water, nor dried by the wind.


Bhagavad Gita 2.24

acchedyo ’yam adāhyo ’yam
akledyo ’śoṣya eva ca
nityaḥ sarva-gataḥ sthāṇur
acalo ’yaṁ sanātanaḥ

Synonyms

acchedyaḥ — unbreakable; ayam — this soul; adāhyaḥ — unable to be burned; ayam — this soul; akledyaḥ — insoluble; aśoṣyaḥ — not able to be dried; eva — certainly; ca — and; nityaḥ — everlasting; sarva-gataḥ — all-pervading; sthāṇuḥ — unchangeable; acalaḥ — immovable; ayam — this soul; sanātanaḥ — eternally the same.

Translation
The individual soul is unbreakable and indivisible, and cannot be burned, is insoluble and cannot be dried. It is all everlasting, all pervading, unchangeable, immovable and eternally the same.


Bhagavad Gita 2.25

avyakto ’yam acintyo ’yam
avikāryo ’yam ucyate
tasmād evaṁ viditvainaṁ
nānuśocitum arhasi

Synonyms

avyaktaḥ — invisible; ayam — this soul; acintyaḥ — inconceivable; ayam — this soul; avikāryaḥ — unchangeable; ayam — this soul; ucyate — is said; tasmāt — therefore; evam — like this; viditvā — knowing it well; enam — this soul; na — do not; anuśocitum — to lament; arhasi — you deserve.

Translation
This soul is invisible, inconceivable and unchangeable. Therefore knowing the soul, you should not lament.


Bhagavad Gita 2.26

atha cainaṁ nitya-jātaṁ
nityaṁ vā manyase mṛtam
tathāpi tvaṁ mahā-bāho
nainaṁ śocitum arhasi

Synonyms

atha — if, however; ca — also; enam — this soul; nitya-jātam — always born; nityam — forever; — either; manyase — you so think; mṛtam — dead; tathā api — still; tvam — you; mahā-bāho — O mighty-armed one; na — never; enam — about the soul; śocitum — to lament; arhasi — deserve.

Translation
Even if you think that the soul will always be born and die forever, you still have no reason to lament, O mighty-armed.


Bhagavad Gita 2.27

jātasya hi dhruvo mṛtyur
dhruvaṁ janma mṛtasya ca
tasmād aparihārye ’rthe
na tvaṁ śocitum arhasi

Synonyms

jātasya — of one who has taken his birth; hi — certainly; dhruvaḥ — a fact; mṛtyuḥ — death; dhruvam — it is also a fact; janma — birth; mṛtasya — of the dead; ca — also; tasmāt — therefore; aparihārye — of that which is unavoidable; arthe — in the matter; na — do not; tvam — you; śocitum — to lament; arhasi — deserve.

Translation
One who has taken birth is certain to die, and it is also a fact that after death one is sure to take birth again. Therefore one should not lament in the unavoidable discharge of ones duty.


Bhagavad Gita 2.28

avyaktādīni bhūtāni
vyakta-madhyāni bhārata
avyakta-nidhanāny eva
tatra kā paridevanā

Synonyms

avyakta-ādīni — in the beginning unmanifested; bhūtāni — all that are created; vyakta — manifested; madhyāni — in the middle; bhārata — O descendant of Bharata; avyakta — nonmanifested; nidhanāni — when vanquished; eva — it is all like that; tatra — therefore; — what; paridevanā — lamentation.

Translation
All that is created is un-manifested in their beginning, manifested in the middle state, and un-manifested again when vanquished. So, O descendant of Bharata, what need is there for lamentation?


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Bhagavad Gita 2.29-2.37

Lord Kṛṣṇa is explaining Arjuna about the sinful reactions of neglecting his occupational duty as a Kṣatriya. Great generals would consider that he left the battlefield out of fear. He would lose his reputation, would be infamous and enemies would further fabricate stories adding to the vilification. On the other hand If he were killed on the battlefield he will gain access to heavenly kingdom or he will enjoy the world after conquering earthly kingdom. Therefore Lord Kṛṣṇa advises Arjuna ,O son of Kuntī, to get up with determination and fight.


Audio Recording


Special Class Audio Recording (2.29- 2.31)


Bhagavad Gita 2.29

āścarya-vat paśyati kaścid enam
āścarya-vad vadati tathaiva cānyaḥ
āścarya-vac cainam anyaḥ śṛṇoti
śrutvāpy enaṁ veda na caiva kaścit

Synonyms

āścarya-vat — as amazing; paśyati — sees; kaścit — someone; enam — this soul; āścarya-vat — as amazing; vadati — speaks of; tathā — thus; eva — certainly; ca — also; anyaḥ — another; āścarya-vat — similarly amazing; ca — also; enam — this soul; anyaḥ — another; śṛṇoti — hears of; śrutvā — having heard; api — even; enam — this soul; veda — knows; na — never; ca — and; eva — certainly; kaścit — someone.

Translation
Some see the soul as amazing, some speak of the soul as being amazing and similarly others have heard of the soul as amazing and even then they cannot understand the nature of the soul.


Bhagavad Gita 2.30

dehī nityam avadhyo ’yaṁ
dehe sarvasya bhārata
tasmāt sarvāṇi bhūtāni
na tvaṁ śocitum arhasi

Synonyms

dehī — the owner of the material body; nityam — eternally; avadhyaḥ — cannot be killed; ayam — this soul; dehe — in the body; sarvasya — of everyone; bhārata — O descendant of Bharata; tasmāt — therefore; sarvāṇi — all; bhūtāni — living entities (that are born); na — never; tvam — you; śocitum — to lament; arhasi — deserve

Translation
O descendant of Bharata, the owner of the material body is eternal and cannot be killed and that is the same for everyone in every body. So there is no reason for you to lament for any living entity. 


Bhagavad Gita 2.31

sva-dharmam api cāvekṣya
na vikampitum arhasi
dharmyād dhi yuddhāc chreyo ’nyat
kṣatriyasya na vidyate

Synonyms


sva-dharmam — one’s own religious principles; api — also; ca — indeed; avekṣya — considering; na — never; vikampitum — to hesitate; arhasi — you deserve; dharmyāt — for religious principles; hi — indeed; yuddhāt — than fighting; śreyaḥ — better engagement; anyat — any other; kṣatriyasya — of the kṣatriya; na — does not; vidyate — exist.

Translation
Considering your own eternal occupational duty there is no better engagement for you as a kṣatriya than fighting on religious principles; and therefore you should not hesitate.


Bhagavad Gita 2.32

yadṛcchayā copapannaṁ
svarga-dvāram apāvṛtam
sukhinaḥ kṣatriyāḥ pārtha
labhante yuddham īdṛśam

Synonyms

yadṛcchayā — by its own accord; ca — also; upapannam — arrived at; svarga — of the heavenly planets; dvāram — door; apāvṛtam — wide open; sukhinaḥ — very happy; kṣatriyāḥ — the members of the royal order; pārtha — O son of Pṛthā; labhante — do achieve; yuddham — war; īdṛśam — like this

Translation
O son of Pṛthā, such kṣatriyas are happy to whom such fighting opportunities come on its own, as it opens all the doors to the heavenly planets for them.


Bhagavad Gita 2.33

atha cet tvam imaṁ dharmyaṁ
saṅgrāmaṁ na kariṣyasi
tataḥ sva-dharmaṁ kīrtiṁ ca
hitvā pāpam avāpsyasi

Synonyms

atha — therefore; cet — if; tvam — you; imam — this; dharmyam — as a religious duty; saṅgrāmam — fighting; na — do not; kariṣyasi — perform; tataḥ — then; sva-dharmam — your religious duty; kīrtim — reputation; ca — also; hitvā — losing; pāpam — sinful reaction; avāpsyasi — will gain

Translation
Therefore if you do not perform your occupational duty of fighting, then you will gain sinful reaction for neglecting your duty and you will lose your reputation as a fighter.


Bhagavad Gita 2.34

akīrtiṁ cāpi bhūtāni
kathayiṣyanti te ’vyayām
sambhāvitasya cākīrtir
maraṇād atiricyate

Synonyms

akīrtim — infamy; ca — also; api — over and above; bhūtāni — all people; kathayiṣyanti — will speak; te — of you; avyayām — forever; sambhāvitasya — for a respectable man; ca — also; akīrtiḥ — ill fame; maraṇāt — than death; atiricyate — becomes more

Translation
All the people will always talk of your infamy, and such dishonor, for a respectable person, is worse than death


Bhagavad Gita 2.35

bhayād raṇād uparataṁ
maṁsyante tvāṁ mahā-rathāḥ
yeṣāṁ ca tvaṁ bahu-mato
bhūtvā yāsyasi lāghavam

Synonyms

bhayāt — out of fear; raṇāt — from the battlefield; uparatam — ceased; maṁsyante — they will consider; tvām — you; mahā-rathāḥ — the great generals; yeṣām — for whom; ca — also; tvam — you; bahu-mataḥ — in great estimation; bhūtvā — having been; yāsyasi — you will go; lāghavam — decreased in value.

Translation
All the great generals, who have considered you great will consider that you left the battlefield out of fear and thus they will decrease your esteem and consider you insignificant.


Bhagavad Gita 2.36

avācya-vādāṁś ca bahūn
vadiṣyanti tavāhitāḥ
nindantas tava sāmarthyaṁ
tato duḥkha-taraṁ nu kim

Synonyms

avācya — unkind; vādān — fabricated words; ca — also; bahūn — many; vadiṣyanti — will say; tava — your; ahitāḥ — enemies; nindantaḥ — while vilifying; tava — your; sāmarthyam — ability; tataḥ — than that; duḥkha-taram — more painful; nu — of course; kim — what is there.

Translation
Your enemies will fabricate and vilify your ability. What could be more painful for you?


Bhagavad Gita 2.37

hato vā prāpsyasi svargaṁ
jitvā vā bhokṣyase mahīm
tasmād uttiṣṭha kaunteya
yuddhāya kṛta-niścayaḥ

Synonyms

hataḥ — being killed; — either; prāpsyasi — you gain; svargam — the heavenly kingdom; jitvā — by conquering; — or; bhokṣyase — you enjoy; mahīm — the world; tasmāt — therefore; uttiṣṭha — get up; kaunteya — O son of Kuntī; yuddhāya — to fight; kṛta — determined; niścayaḥ — in certainty.

Translation
If you were killed on the battlefield you will gain access to heavenly kingdom or you will enjoy the world after conquering earthly kingdom. Therefore ,O son of Kuntī, get up with determination and fight.


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Bhagavad Gita 2.38-2.41


Audio Recording


Bhagavad Gita 2.38

sukha-duḥkhe same kṛtvā
lābhālābhau jayājayau
tato yuddhāya yujyasva
naivaṁ pāpam avāpsyasi

Synonyms

sukha — happiness; duḥkhe — and distress; same — in equanimity; kṛtvā — doing so; lābha-alābhau — both profit and loss; jaya-ajayau — both victory and defeat; tataḥ — thereafter; yuddhāya — for the sake of fighting; yujyasva — engage (fight); na — never; evam — in this way; pāpam — sinful reaction; avāpsyasi — you will gain

Translation
For the sake of fighting do fight, without considering happiness or distress, loss or gain, victory or defeat, as by doing so you will not incur sinful reaction.


Bhagavad Gita 2.39

eṣā te ’bhihitā sāṅkhye
buddhir yoge tv imāṁ śṛṇu
buddhyā yukto yayā pārtha
karma-bandhaṁ prahāsyasi

Synonyms

eṣā — all this; te — unto you; abhihitā — described; sāṅkhye — in analytical study; buddhiḥ — intelligence; yoge — in work without fruitive result; tu — but; imām — this; śṛṇu — just hear; buddhyā — by intelligence; yuktaḥ — dovetailed; yayā — by which; pārtha — O son of Pṛthā; karma-bandham — bondage of reaction; prahāsyasi — you can be released from

Translation
All this has been described through analytical study i.e sāṅkhye philosophy. Now listen on how to work jointly with this intelligence and without fruitive results. O son of Pṛthā, when you act with this knowledge of Yoga, linking, you can be released from bondage of Karma


Bhagavad Gita 2.40

nehābhikrama-nāśo ’sti
pratyavāyo na vidyate
sv-alpam apy asya dharmasya
trāyate mahato bhayāt

Synonyms

na — there is not; iha — in this yoga; abhikrama — in endeavoring; nāśaḥ — loss; asti — there is; pratyavāyaḥ — diminution; na — never; vidyate — there is; su-alpam — a little; api — although; asya — of this; dharmasya — occupation; trāyate — releases; mahataḥ — from very great; bhayāt — danger.

Translation
In this effort there is no loss or reduction in any way and a little advancement on this path can protect one from the greatest danger.


Bhagavad Gita 2.41

vyavasāyātmikā buddhir
ekeha kuru-nandana
bahu-śākhā hy anantāś ca
buddhayo ’vyavasāyinām

Synonyms

vyavasāya-ātmikā — resolute in Kṛṣṇa consciousness; buddhiḥ — intelligence; ekā — only one; iha — in this world; kuru-nandana — O beloved child of the Kurus; bahu-śākhāḥ — having various branches; hi — indeed; anantāḥ — unlimited; ca — also; buddhayaḥ — intelligence; avyavasāyinām — of those who are not in Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

Translation
Those who are resolute in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, their aim is one. O beloved child of the Kurus, the intelligence of those who are irresolute is many-branched or uncertain


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Bhagavad Gita 2.42- 2.44


Audio Recording


Bhagavad Gita 2.42-2.43

yām imāṁ puṣpitāṁ vācaṁ
pravadanty avipaścitaḥ
veda-vāda-ratāḥ pārtha
nānyad astīti vādinaḥ

kāmātmānaḥ svarga-parā
janma-karma-phala-pradām
kriyā-viśeṣa-bahulāṁ
bhogaiśvarya-gatiṁ prati

Synonyms

mām — all these; puṣpitām — flowery; vācam — words; pravadanti — say; avipaścitaḥ — men with a poor fund of knowledge; veda-vāda-ratāḥ — supposed followers of the Vedas; pārtha — O son of Pṛthā; na — never; anyat — anything else; asti — there is; iti — thus; vādinaḥ — the advocates; kāma-ātmānaḥ — desirous of sense gratification; svarga-parāḥ — aiming to achieve heavenly planets; janma-karma-phala-pradām — resulting in good birth and other fruitive reactions; kriyā-viśeṣa — pompous ceremonies; bahulām — various; bhoga — in sense enjoyment; aiśvarya — and opulence; gatim — progress; prati — towards.

Translation
Purported followers of the Vedas speak flowery words of the Vedas and lack knowledge.  Son of Pṛthā, they are advocating activities which results in constant re-birth and fruitive reactions and are aimed for reaching heavenly planets. They are progressing towards sense gratification and advocating special opulent activities, there is nothing more than this.


Bhagavad Gita 2.44

bhogaiśvarya-prasaktānāṁ
tayāpahṛta-cetasām
vyavasāyātmikā buddhiḥ
samādhau na vidhīyate

Synonyms

bhoga — to material enjoyment; aiśvarya — and opulence; prasaktānām — for those who are attached; tayā — by such things; apahṛta-cetasām — bewildered in mind; vyavasāya-ātmikā — fixed in determination; buddhiḥ — devotional service to the Lord; samādhau — in the controlled mind; na — never; vidhīyate — does take place

Translation
Those who are attached to Material enjoyment and opulence are bewildered in mind by such things. This does not happen for those who are fixed in determination in devotional service to the Supreme Lord.


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Bhagavad Gita 2.45-2.46


Audio Recording


Bhagavad Gita 2.45

trai-guṇya-viṣayā vedā
nistrai-guṇyo bhavārjuna
nirdvandvo nitya-sattva-stho
niryoga-kṣema ātmavān

Synonyms

trai-guṇya — pertaining to the three modes of material nature; viṣayāḥ — on the subject matter; vedāḥ — Vedic literatures; nistrai-guṇyaḥ — transcendental to the three modes of material nature; bhava — be; arjuna — O Arjuna; nirdvandvaḥ — without duality; nitya-sattva-sthaḥ — in a pure state of spiritual existence; niryoga-kṣemaḥ — free from ideas of gain and protection; ātma-vān — established in the self

Translation
The subject matter of the Vedas pertains to three modes of material nature (mode of goodness, passion and ignorance). O Arjuna, ever remain in the state of goodness (sattva), without duality, free from the desire of acquisition and preservation by being established in the self.


Bhagavad Gita 2.46

yāvān artha uda-pāne
sarvataḥ samplutodake
tāvān sarveṣu vedeṣu
brāhmaṇasya vijānataḥ

Synonyms

yāvān — all that; arthaḥ — is meant; uda-pāne — in a well of water; sarvataḥ — in all respects; sampluta-udake — in a great reservoir of water; tāvān — similarly; sarveṣu — in all; vedeṣu — Vedic literatures; brāhmaṇasya — of the man who knows the Supreme Brahman; vijānataḥ — who is in complete knowledge.

Translation
All the purposes meant to be served by a well of water are available in all respects from a large reservoir of water. Similarly all the purposes of vedas are served by the person who knows the divine and the purpose of the knowledge.  


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Bhagavad Gita 2.47-2.55 (Missing Audio)


Bhagavad Gita 2.56-2.57



One who is without affection for achieving good or evil and does not praise or envies it, is fixed in perfect knowledge.


Audio Recording


Bhagavad Gita 2.56

duḥkheṣv anudvigna-manāḥ
sukheṣu vigata-spṛhaḥ
vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodhaḥ
sthita-dhīr munir ucyate

Synonyms

duḥkheṣu — in the threefold miseries; anudvigna-manāḥ — without being agitated in mind; sukheṣu — in happiness; vigata-spṛhaḥ — without being interested; vīta — free from; rāga — attachment; bhaya — fear; krodhaḥ — and anger; sthita-dhīḥ — whose mind is steady; muniḥ — a sage; ucyate — is called

Translation
One who is not disturbed in-spite of the threefold miseries. Without being too interested in happiness, one who is free from attachment from fear and anger and has a steady mind is a sage.


Bhagavad Gita 2.57

yaḥ sarvatrānabhisnehas
tat tat prāpya śubhāśubham
nābhinandati na dveṣṭi
tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā

Synonyms

yaḥ — one who; sarvatra — everywhere; anabhisnehaḥ — without affection; tat — that; tat — that; prāpya — achieving; śubha — good; aśubham — evil; na — never; abhinandati — praises; na — never; dveṣṭi — envies; tasya — his; prajñā — perfect knowledge; pratiṣṭhitā — fixed

Translation
One who is without affection for achieving good or evil and does not praise or envies it, is fixed in perfect knowledge.


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Bhagavad Gita 2.58-2.72



Audio Recording


Bhagavad Gita 2.58

yadā saṁharate cāyaṁ
kūrmo ’ṅgānīva sarvaśaḥ
indriyāṇīndriyārthebhyas
tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā

Synonyms

yadā — when; saṁharate — winds up; ca — also; ayam — he; kūrmaḥ — tortoise; aṅgāni — limbs; iva — like; sarvaśaḥ — altogether; indriyāṇi — senses; indriya-arthebhyaḥ — from the sense objects; tasya — his; prajñā — consciousness; pratiṣṭhitā — fixed.

Translation
When a person is able to withdraw from the object of the senses to which they are attracted just as the tortoise draws its limbs within the shell, such a person is truly situated in perfect consciousness of knowledge. 


Bhagavad Gita 2.59

viṣayā vinivartante
nirāhārasya dehinaḥ
rasa-varjaṁ raso ’py asya 
paraṁ dṛṣṭvā nivartate

Synonyms

viṣayāḥ — objects for sense enjoyment; vinivartante — are practiced to be refrained from; nirāhārasya — by negative restrictions; dehinaḥ — for the embodied; rasa-varjam — giving up the taste; rasaḥ — sense of enjoyment; api — although there is; asya — his; param — far superior things; dṛṣṭvā — by experiencing; nivartate — he ceases from.

Translation
One cannot progress by following negative restriction and practicing giving up of the taste of objects of sense enjoyment. This can be ceased by engaging and experiencing a higher taste.


Bhagavad Gita 2.60

yatato hy api kaunteya
puruṣasya vipaścitaḥ
indriyāṇi pramāthīni
haranti prasabhaṁ manaḥ

Synonyms

yatataḥ — while endeavoring; hi — certainly; api — in spite of; kaunteya — O son of Kuntī; puruṣasya — of a man; vipaścitaḥ — full of discriminating knowledge; indriyāṇi — the senses; pramāthīni — agitating; haranti — throw; prasabham — by force; manaḥ — the mind.

Translation
Inspite of the efforts, O Son of Kunti, of even the person who is having the knowledge of discrimination, the senses are so strong that the mind agitates.


Bhagavad Gita 2.61

tāni sarvāṇi saṁyamya
yukta āsīta mat-paraḥ
vaśe hi yasyendriyāṇi
tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā

Synonyms

tāni — those senses; sarvāṇi — all; saṁyamya — keeping under control; yuktaḥ — engaged; āsīta — should be situated; mat-paraḥ — in relationship with Me; vaśe — in full subjugation; hi — certainly; yasya — one whose; indriyāṇi — senses; tasya — his; prajñā — consciousness; pratiṣṭhitā — fixed.

Translation
When the senses are kept under control and engaged in me, such a person's senses can be subjugated and fixed in my consciousness. 


Bhagavad Gita 2.62

dhyāyato viṣayān puṁsaḥ
saṅgas teṣūpajāyate
saṅgāt sañjāyate kāmaḥ
kāmāt krodho ’bhijāyate

Synonyms

dhyāyataḥ — while contemplating; viṣayān — sense objects; puṁsaḥ — of a person; saṅgaḥ — attachment; teṣu — in the sense objects; upajāyate — develops; saṅgāt — from attachment; sañjāyate — develops; kāmaḥ — desire; kāmāt — from desire; krodhaḥ — anger; abhijāyate — becomes manifest.

Translation
When the person is contemplating the objects of the senses, attachment develops and from such association desire develops and from desire anger is manifested.


Bhagavad Gita 2.63

krodhād bhavati sammohaḥ
sammohāt smṛti-vibhramaḥ
smṛti-bhraṁśād buddhi-nāśo
buddhi-nāśāt praṇaśyati

Synonyms

krodhāt — from anger; bhavati — takes place; sammohaḥ — perfect illusion; sammohāt — from illusion; smṛti — of memory; vibhramaḥ — bewilderment; smṛti-bhraṁśāt — after bewilderment of memory; buddhi-nāśaḥ — loss of intelligence; buddhi-nāśāt — and from loss of intelligence; praṇaśyati — one falls down.

Translation
Perfect illusion takes place from anger and from illusion, bewilderment of memory. After the memory is bewildered, destruction of intelligence takes place. From the loss of intelligence one falls down to the material pool of ignorance and illusion. 


Bhagavad Gita 2.64

rāga-dveṣa-vimuktais tu
viṣayān indriyaiś caran
ātma-vaśyair vidheyātmā
prasādam adhigacchati

Synonyms

rāga — attachment; dveṣa — and detachment; vimuktaiḥ — by one who has become free from; tu — but; viṣayān — sense objects; indriyaiḥ — by the senses; caran — acting upon; ātma-vaśyaiḥ — under one’s control; vidheya-ātmā — one who follows regulated freedom; prasādam — the mercy of the Lord; adhigacchati — attains.

Translation
One who is free from attachments and  who acts to detach  from the sensory objects by practicing control of senses following regulated principles of freedom attains the mercy of the Lord.


Bhagavad Gita 2.65

prasāde sarva-duḥkhānāṁ
hānir asyopajāyate
prasanna-cetaso hy āśu
buddhiḥ paryavatiṣṭhate

Synonyms

prasāde — on achievement of the causeless mercy of the Lord; sarva — of all; duḥkhānām — material miseries; hāniḥ — destruction; asya — his; upajāyate — takes place; prasanna-cetasaḥ — of the happy-minded; hi — certainly; āśu — very soon; buddhiḥ — intelligence; pari — sufficiently; avatiṣṭhate — becomes established

Translation
By getting causeless mercy of the Lord all the material threefold miseries are destroyed. Such a person is in a happy state of mind and soon sufficiently established in intelligence.


Bhagavad Gita 2.66

nāsti buddhir ayuktasya
na cāyuktasya bhāvanā
na cābhāvayataḥ śāntir
aśāntasya kutaḥ sukham

Synonyms

na asti — there cannot be; buddhiḥ — transcendental intelligence; ayuktasya — of one who is not connected (with Kṛṣṇa consciousness); na — not; ca — and; ayuktasya — of one devoid of Kṛṣṇa consciousness; bhāvanā — fixed mind (in happiness); na — not; ca — and; abhāvayataḥ — of one who is not fixed; śāntiḥ — peace; aśāntasya — of the unpeaceful; kutaḥ — where is; sukham — happiness

Translation
One who is not established in this transcendental intelligence and who is also not connected and devoid of Kṛṣṇa consciousness cannot have a happy mind and cannot be fixed in peace. Where is happiness without a peaceful mind? 


Bhagavad Gita 2.67

indriyāṇāṁ hi caratāṁ
yan mano ’nuvidhīyate
tad asya harati prajñāṁ
vāyur nāvam ivāmbhasi

Synonyms

indriyāṇām — of the senses; hi — certainly; caratām — while roaming; yat — with which; manaḥ — the mind; anuvidhīyate — becomes constantly engaged; tat — that; asya — his; harati — takes away; prajñām — intelligence; vāyuḥ — wind; nāvam — a boat; iva — like; ambhasi — on the water.

Translation
When the mind becomes constantly engaged to the roaming senses that takes away intelligence just like a boat in the wind is pushed by a strong wind.


Bhagavad Gita 2.68

tasmād yasya mahā-bāho
nigṛhītāni sarvaśaḥ
indriyāṇīndriyārthebhyas
tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā

Synonyms

tasmāt — therefore; yasya — whose; mahā-bāho — O mighty-armed one; nigṛhītāni — so curbed down; sarvaśaḥ — all around; indriyāṇi — the senses; indriya-arthebhyaḥ — from sense objects; tasya — his; prajñā — intelligence; pratiṣṭhitā — fixed.

Translation
Therefore, O mighty armed, one who has curbed the senses that travel all around the object of the senses, his intelligence is fixed.


Bhagavad Gita 2.69

yā niśā sarva-bhūtānāṁ
tasyāṁ jāgarti saṁyamī
yasyāṁ jāgrati bhūtāni
sā niśā paśyato muneḥ

Synonyms

— what; niśā — is night; sarva — all; bhūtānām — of living entities; tasyām — in that; jāgarti — is wakeful; saṁyamī — the self-controlled; yasyām — in which; jāgrati — are awake; bhūtāni — all beings; — that is; niśā — night; paśyataḥ — for the introspective; muneḥ — sage.

Translation
What is night for all living beings, is the time of awakening for the self-controlled; and the time of awakening or absorption for all beings is night for the introspective sage.


Bhagavad Gita 2.70

āpūryamāṇam acala-pratiṣṭhaṁ
samudram āpaḥ praviśanti yadvat
tadvat kāmā yaṁ praviśanti sarve
sa śāntim āpnoti na kāma-kāmī

Synonyms

āpūryamāṇam — always being filled; acala-pratiṣṭham — steadily situated; samudram — the ocean; āpaḥ — waters; praviśanti — enter; yadvat — as; tadvat — so; kāmāḥ — desires; yam — unto whom; praviśanti — enter; sarve — all; saḥ — that person; śāntim — peace; āpnoti — achieves; na — not; kāma-kāmī — one who desires to fulfill desires.

Translation
A person who is steadily situated in the incessant flow of desires that enter like rivers into the ocean, such a person can achieve peace and not the person who desires to fulfill desires.


Bhagavad Gita 2.71

vihāya kāmān yaḥ sarvān
pumāṁś carati niḥspṛhaḥ
nirmamo nirahaṅkāraḥ
sa śāntim adhigacchati

Synonyms

vihāya — giving up; kāmān — material desires for sense gratification; yaḥ — who; sarvān — all; pumān — a person; carati — lives; niḥspṛhaḥ — desireless; nirmamaḥ — without a sense of proprietorship; nirahaṅkāraḥ — without false ego; saḥ — he; śāntim — perfect peace; adhigacchati — attains

Translation
One who has given up sense gratification, lives desireless, without a sense of proprietorship and without self ego, such a person alone attains real peace.


Bhagavad Gita 2.72

eṣā brāhmī sthitiḥ pārtha
naināṁ prāpya vimuhyati
sthitvāsyām anta-kāle ’pi
brahma-nirvāṇam ṛcchati

Synonyms

eṣā — this; brāhmī — spiritual; sthitiḥ — situation; pārtha — O son of Pṛthā; na — never; enām — this; prāpya — achieving; vimuhyati — one is bewildered; sthitvā — being situated; asyām — in this; anta-kāle — at the end of life; api — also; brahma-nirvāṇam — the spiritual kingdom of God; ṛcchati — one attains.

Translation
This spiritual situation, son of Pṛthā, does not bewilder someone situated so, even at the end of life. Therefore one can attain the spiritual kingdom of God.



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Chapter 4

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Chapter 8

Chapter 9

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Chapter 11

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Chapter 15

Articles relating to Kṛṣṇa

Highest Service to the Divine


Part-1 of 'Krishna Aaradhana'

Questions About Krishna Aaradhana and Karmic Healing


Part-2 of 'Krishna Aaradhana'

Chanting Harinaam, &
The Best Krishna Aaradhana (service)


Excerpt from - The Loving Search for the Lost Servant of Kṛṣṇa - by His Divine Grace Srila Sridhara Maharaj